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<ul><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 1/24/7, 11:19, page: 230</p><p>C H A P T E RC H A P T E R</p><p>99 The Economics ofSupply and DemandThe Economics ofSupply and Demand9.1 Supply and Demand</p><p>9.2 Pricing Strategies</p><p>9.3 Market Conditions</p><p>PHOTO</p><p>ATLEFT</p><p>GETTYIM</p><p>AGES/PHOTODISC</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 1/25/7, 17:0, page: 231</p><p>Cereal StarsOne winning marketing strategy is to use celebrity endorsements to pro-</p><p>mote a product. Wheaties1 cereal provides a classic example of the suc-</p><p>cessful use of this strategy.</p><p>Wheaties came into existence by accident in 1921. A man was fixing</p><p>his breakfast and dropped an oatmeal-like wheat bran mix on a hot stove</p><p>and the splat cooked into a crispy flake. The man ate it, loved it, and</p><p>recommended it to the Washburn Crosby Company. Washburn Crosby</p><p>marketed the discovery as Gold Medal Wheat Flakes. Later, the name was</p><p>changed to Wheaties, and General Mills took over Washburn Crosby.</p><p>Wheaties first featured star was a fictitious character from radioJack</p><p>Armstrong, All-American Boy. Lou Gehrig was featured on the box in 1935,</p><p>and from that point on, athletes became a permanent fixture on Wheaties</p><p>boxes. Stars from baseball, aviation, tennis, skating, NASCAR, basketball,</p><p>swimming, track, gymnastics, hockey, and golf have appeared. Being fea-</p><p>tured on a box of Wheaties is a career goal for many athletes. It is a sign of</p><p>achieving success, an honor, and a boon to any athletes career.</p><p>In 1999, Wheaties launched a five-box series of packages honoring</p><p>women in sports. The featured athletes were members of the U.S. Womens</p><p>Soccer Team. Wheaties Marketing Manager Jim Murphy said, A new era</p><p>of heroes (was) born. We wanted to do something special to permanently</p><p>honor these women and their achievements.</p><p>Think Critically</p><p>1. Explain the benefit to Wheaties of having a star athlete on its box.</p><p>Explain the benefit to the athlete.</p><p>2. Name some risks to Wheaties of having real people on its boxes.</p><p>3. Discuss the elements of sponsorship, promotion, and endorsement in</p><p>relation to Wheaties.</p><p>231</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 2/28/7, 13:18, page: 232</p><p>Lesson 9.1</p><p>Supply andDemandSupply andDemand</p><p>Goals Explain the relationships among supply, demand, and price. Discuss the governments influence on pricing.</p><p>Terms</p><p>THE LAWS OF SUPPLYAND DEMANDConsumers are individuals who purchase products to sat-</p><p>isfy their needs and wants. DVDs, concerts, sporting events,</p><p>air flights, and hotel rooms are in demand by consumers.</p><p>Demand is the relationship between the quantity of a</p><p>product that consumers are willing and able to purchase and the price.</p><p>Consumers conduct research and talk to friends and family to select goods</p><p>and services to satisfy their needs. Producers are businesses that use resources</p><p>to develop products and services. Supply is the relationship between the</p><p>quantity of a product that producers are willing and able to provide and</p><p>the price. Producers also conduct research to gather information about the</p><p>types of goods and services that customers are likely to purchase. Ballparks,</p><p>special-event centers, and surrounding restaurants and pubs are built based</p><p>upon consumer demand for sports and entertainment events.</p><p>Price-Demand RelationshipsFinding a balance between what producers are willing to produce and what</p><p>customers are willing to buy is one of the major challenges of marketers.</p><p>Economists believe the economic value of a pro-</p><p>fessional sports team does not measure up to the</p><p>social and psychological significance of the</p><p>team. Most team owners and sports fans would</p><p>disagree. For an existing team to move to a city</p><p>or for expansion teams to be approved, there</p><p>must be financial benefits to the leagues</p><p>member owners, to related businesses, and</p><p>to the cities in which the team will locate. Success cannot</p><p>occur if one makes a profit and the others lose money.</p><p>Work with a group. Brainstorm benefits other than</p><p>financial that might come to a community acquiring a</p><p>professional sports team. Exchange and discuss the lists</p><p>of other groups.</p><p> law of demand law of supply scarcity</p><p> equilibrium price fixing bait and switch</p><p> price discrimination</p><p>232 Chapter 9 THE ECONOMICS OF SUPPLYANDDEMAND</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 1/24/7, 11:21, page: 233</p><p>Many factors must be considered when trying to determine the marketing</p><p>mixthe right blend of products, pricing, promotion, and distribution.</p><p>If consumers know about a desirable product and it is readily available,</p><p>they may be willing to buy more of it when the price is low. But they will</p><p>buy less of it when the price is high. This inverse relationshipwhen the</p><p>price goes up demand goes down, and when the price goes down demand</p><p>goes upis known as the law of demand.</p><p>Price-Supply RelationshipsThe producers of a product, whether it is a sports event or a major motion</p><p>picture, are in business to make a profit. They are willing to invest their</p><p>resourcestime, money, and materialsif they have a good chance of</p><p>making a profit. The producers of music DVDs are willing to invest millions</p><p>of dollars to make a profit. But, if the selling price of music DVDs drops,</p><p>then fewer DVDs will be produced because the chances of making a profit</p><p>are lessened. If the price of DVDs increases, more companies are willing to</p><p>produce more DVDs. This relationshipwhen the price goes up the supply</p><p>produced goes up, and when the price goes down the supply produced goes</p><p>downis known as the law of supply.Marketers help to balance the impact of the laws of supply and demand</p><p>by providing consumers information about new products and by making</p><p>the products conveniently available. Consumers then decide to use their</p><p>limited resources on the products based on their wants and needs. Producers</p><p>must pay attention to what is selling at profitable prices and quantities and</p><p>what is not and adjust production accordingly.</p><p>ScarcityConsumers have limited money to spend on sports and entertainment</p><p>products and events. Producers also have limited resources to use in the</p><p>production of products and events. The lack of resources is referred to as</p><p>scarcity. Consumers and producers must decide how to use their limitedresources to meet unlimited wants and needs.</p><p>EquilibriumThe economics of supply and demand can be illustrated by curves on a graph.</p><p>The supply curve indicates how much product will be provided at different</p><p>prices. When prices for the goods rise, producers are encouraged to produce</p><p>more. The demand curve</p><p>shows how much consumers</p><p>will buy at different prices.</p><p>Consumers generally will</p><p>buy more at lower prices.</p><p>When prices are too high,</p><p>consumers will choose other</p><p>alternatives or do without</p><p>the goods. Equilibrium isthe point where the supply</p><p>and demand curves intersect.</p><p>Equilibrium indicates the</p><p>best quantity and price for</p><p>goods and services.100</p><p>Pric</p><p>e</p><p>$1</p><p>SupplycurveDemand</p><p>curve</p><p>Quantity</p><p>Equilibrium Pricey</p><p>x</p><p>TimeOutTimeOutThree Gulf Coastcasinos that reop-ened after beingdestroyed byHurricane Katrinaearned $14.5</p><p>million in the firstten days. The casinosprofited from highconsumer demand.</p><p>SUPPLYANDDEMAND Lesson 9.1 233</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 3/6/7, 16:12, page: 234</p><p>Concerts in the SpotlightPopular concerts sell out in a few hours, sometimes months before the</p><p>actual event, due to high consumer demand. Fans will form lines at the</p><p>ticket outlets up to 12 hours before tickets go on sale. Extreme loyalists may</p><p>even camp outside overnight to ensure they are first in line to purchase</p><p>tickets. Because of the high demand and limited supply (of available seat-</p><p>ing), prices can be set high. If demand is high enough, event planners may</p><p>increase supply by adding a second show.</p><p>How does price affect demand?</p><p>GOVERNMENT INFLUENCEON PRICINGThe United States has a free-enterprise system, also called a</p><p>private-enterprise system, based upon independent decisions</p><p>made by consumers and businesses. The government plays</p><p>a limited role but even a private-enterprise system calls for</p><p>some government involvement. The government has an influence on prices</p><p>charged for merchandise directly and indirectly through antitrust laws,</p><p>taxation, and various consumer protection laws.</p><p>Benefits of CompetitionAntitrust laws serve to encourage competition and to avoid monopolies where</p><p>one business controls the entire market. Increased competition is beneficial</p><p>to businesses and consumers alike. Competition in a free market allows the</p><p>laws of supply and demand to set the prices. Businesses receive new ideas</p><p>from the competition and improve their merchandise and services in order</p><p>to successfully compete for the business of consumers. Competition also</p><p>encourages businesses to develop new products and services.</p><p>The Internet has provided a convenient means for selling</p><p>tickets to sports and entertainment events. It also has</p><p>served as a great marketing tool for selling memorabilia.</p><p>eBay allows individuals to buy and sell</p><p>merchandise over the Internet and pay</p><p>online through the PayPal</p><p>system. Individuals interested</p><p>in purchasing retro sports jerseys, for example,</p><p>should be able to locate the desired merchandise</p><p>online.</p><p>Think Critically</p><p>1. What is a disadvantage to buying tickets and mer-</p><p>chandise over the Internet?</p><p>2. Why is it important to eBay that buyers post feed-</p><p>back about sellers?</p><p>234 Chapter 9 THE ECONOMICS OF SUPPLYANDDEMAND</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 1/24/7, 11:21, page: 235</p><p>TaxationTaxation is a second strategy used by the government to encourage or dis-</p><p>courage sales. Increasing taxes on alcoholic beverages or cigarettes causes</p><p>prices for those items to rise. The higher prices will discourage sales and will,</p><p>at the same time, provide needed revenues to the government. Tax reduc-</p><p>tions encourage production and sales. Tax breaks to companies manu-</p><p>facturing ethanol encourage production of an alternative fuel source.</p><p>Illegal PricingPrice fixing occurs when related businesses conspire to charge high prices.Suppose that all competing fast-food restaurants formed a cartel that</p><p>decided to charge $12 for all hamburgers. Price fixing is an illegal practice in</p><p>the United States.</p><p>Bait and switch is another illegal practice. Bait and switch occurs whena product that is advertised at a great price is out of stock when customers</p><p>want to purchase it, and the salesperson then tries to sell customers a</p><p>higher-priced alternative. Prices that are advertised cannot be deceptive</p><p>or misleading.</p><p>Price discrimination occurs when one individual, group, or business ischarged a higher price than others purchasing the same product or service.</p><p>There must be a valid reason for price differences. Reasons may include</p><p>differences in distribution costs to different locations, volume of sales,</p><p>changing market conditions, and so forth.</p><p>List three ways the government influences pricing.</p><p>DIG</p><p>ITALVISIO</p><p>N</p><p>SUPPLYANDDEMAND Lesson 9.1 235</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 1/24/7, 11:21, page: 236</p><p>Understand Marketing ConceptsCircle the best answer for each of the following questions.</p><p>1. Which of the following is not an accurate statement based on the laws of</p><p>supply and demand?</p><p>a. When demand for a product goes up, prices can be set higher.</p><p>b. When demand for a service goes down, a business will increase</p><p>prices in order to make up for the loss of sales.</p><p>c. When the supply of a product increases, prices tend to fall.</p><p>d. The price point at which supply and demand are equal is said to be</p><p>the equilibrium point.</p><p>2. Advertising a great price and then not having the merchandise available</p><p>for consumers to purchase is part of which practice?</p><p>a. bait and switch</p><p>b. price discrimination</p><p>c. one-price strategy</p><p>d. none of the above</p><p>Think CriticallyAnswer the following questions as completely as possible. If necessary, use a</p><p>separate sheet of paper.</p><p>3. Based on the laws of supply and demand, explain why a baseball signed</p><p>by Babe Ruth commands a high price.</p><p>4. Why do governmental laws seek to restrict monopolies and cartels?</p><p>How does this benefit consumers and businesses?</p><p>236 Chapter 9 THE ECONOMICS OF SUPPLYANDDEMAND</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 2/28/7, 13:19, page: 237</p><p>Lesson 9.2</p><p>PricingStrategiesPricingStrategies</p><p>Goals Discuss pricing strategies used by businesses to increase sales. List five steps for determining price.</p><p>Terms</p><p>PRICINGCONSIDERATIONSPrice is the amount that customers pay for products and</p><p>services. Pricing is the process of establishing and com-</p><p>municating the value of goods and services to customers.</p><p>When determining the price to be charged for goods and</p><p>services, you must take into consideration the cost of merchandise, oper-</p><p>ating expenses, and the desired amount of profit. If you were a retailer, the</p><p>cost of merchandise would be what you paid to manufacturers for the</p><p>products that you offer for sale. Operating expenses would be all the costsassociated with running your business. Examples of operating expenses</p><p>include utilities, salaries, and federal income taxes. The amount that is</p><p>added to the cost of an item for sale to cover operating expenses and allow</p><p>for a profit is called markup.Remember that pricing is also determined according to the rules of supply</p><p>and demand. In a monopoly situation, where there is only one company</p><p>offering a product or service, the company can set prices high if consumer</p><p>demand for the product is strong. When there is competition, it is important</p><p>for a company to differentiate its product or service. In situations of pure</p><p>competition, where there are many companies offering the same product for</p><p>which customers do not recognize major differences in the brands, the market</p><p>will drive the prices low as businesses compete for consumers business.</p><p>The Donald Trump line of business clothing demands a</p><p>high price. Mr. Trump earns 10 percent royalties for all</p><p>sales of his business clothing. What motivates con-</p><p>sumers to purchase expensive business attire? Many</p><p>businesspersons will associate the Donald Trump</p><p>name with prestige and success. Brand awareness is</p><p>enhanced with a celebrity name. A well-known name on</p><p>a product gives consumers more confidence in the</p><p>quality of the product.</p><p>Work with a group. Identify personal</p><p>characteristics of Donald Trump that can</p><p>be associated with his line of clothing.</p><p>Design a clever print advertisement for the</p><p>Donald Trump business clothing line.</p><p> operating expenses markup</p><p> price lines loss-leader pricing</p><p>PRICING STRATEGIES Lesson 9.2 237</p></li><li><p>Kaser-oelkers_0538445157_Ch09, 2/28/7, 13:19, page: 238</p><p>If the market price, as determined by the laws of supply and demand, is not</p><p>sufficient to cover a businesss product costs and operating expenses and</p><p>allow for a profit, then the business will stop offering the product.</p><p>Pricing PoliciesA one-price policy means that all customers pay the same price for a product,</p><p>such as a concert, football game, or running shoes. A flexible pricing policy</p><p>allows customers to negotiate prices within a range. Automobile dealerships</p><p>typically allow room for customers to negotiate better prices.</p><p>Price lines are distinct categories of merchandise based upon price,quality, and features. Ralph Lauren has Polo as its high-end price line and</p><p>Chaps as the next best alt...</p></li></ul>