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  • Chapter Six:The Rise of the Biblical TraditionCulture and Values, 8th Ed.Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus

  • Timeline for Ancient Rome

    509 BCE Rome overthrows the Etruscan Kings275 BCE Rome controls the whole of Italy146 BCE Rome defeats Carthage150 BCE Rome takes control of Macedonia and Greece44 BCE Rome conquers Gaul (France)31 BCE Augustus defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra in Egypt

    14 CE Death of Augustus98 117 CE Trajan rules. Roman Empire at its largest.312 337 CE Constantine rules. Beginning of the end.

  • Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. - C.E. 476)The year of Four Emperors 68-69 ADNerva and the Five Good Emperors (A.D. 96180)The Severan Dynasty (A.D. 193235)The Crisis of the Roman Empire (A.D. 235284)Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (A.D. 284305)Constantine and ChristianityJulian, Theodosius, and the Later Roman Empire (A.D. 3371453)

  • The End of the Roman EmpireGradual decline and political disunityInsufficient army / use of mercenary troopsIncreased taxes, decreased value of moneyImpossibility of tradeEmperor Diocletian (284-305)Emperor Constantine (306-337)

  • Constantine the Great. 32526 CE. Height of head 8 6.

  • Late Roman Art and ArchitectureLast great Roman Imperial buildingsBasilica NovaAbandonment of Classical idealsRole of Christianity

  • 2000bce1260bceAge of Hebrew Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (r. 18001600)Hebrews in Egypt until Exodus in 12801260bce1000bceHebrews begin to penetrate land of CanaanReign of Saul first king of Israel 104010001000bce922bceReign of King David 1000961Reign of King Solomon 961922; height of ancient Israels cultural power922bce587bceCivil war after Solomons death splitsIsrael; prophetic period beginsNorthern Israeli kingdom destroyed by Assyria in 721

    MesopotamiaSumerian (3500-2350 B.C.E.)Semitic (2350-612 B.C.E.)Ancient Egypt31 dynasties / 4 groups:Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.E.)Middle Kingdom (1990 B.C.E.)New Kingdom (1570 B.C.E.)Late Period (1185-500 B.C.E.)Timeline: Ancient Greece900-600 BCE: Geometric Period600-480 BCE: The Archaic Period480-323 BCE: The Classical Period323-31/30 BCE: The Hellenistic Period

  • GreeceClassical period (500-323 B.C.E.) The Hellenistic Period 323-31 bce

    RomeMonarchy/ Etruscan Age (700-89 B.C.E.)Republican Rome (509-27 B.C.E.)Imperial Rome (27 B.C.E. - C.E. 337)

    587bce63bceJews driven into captivity in Babylonia in 587King Cyrus allows Jews to return to Jerusalem in 539Dedication of Second Temple in 516Conquest by Alexander the Great in 33263bce381ceRome conquers Jerusalem in 63Reign of King Herod 374 HerodBirth of Jesus ca. 6Titus sacks Jerusalem in 70Reign of Emperor Constantine 307327Edict of Milan 313Founding of ConstantinopleChristianity declared state religion

  • Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. - C.E. 476)The year of Four Emperors 68-69 ADNerva and the Five Good Emperors (A.D. 96180)The Severan Dynasty (A.D. 193235)The Crisis of the Roman Empire (A.D. 235284)Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (A.D. 284305)Constantine and ChristianityJulian, Theodosius, and the Later Roman Empire (A.D. 3371453)

  • AbrahamAge of Hebrew PatriarchsHebrew BibleJudaism, Christianity, Islam

  • Biblical HistoryBiblical tradition + Graeco-Roman CultureChildren of Israel, Israelites, Jews, HebrewsPeriod of the PatriarchsPeriod of the ExodusPeriod of the ConquestThe United MonarchyDivided Kingdom and ExileThe Return

  • 6.2 Spoils of Jerusalem (detail from the Arch of Titus), 81ce. Rome, Italy

    6.2 Spoils of Jerusalem (detail from the Arch of Titus), 81ce. Rome, Italy

  • The Hebrew Bible and Its MessageBible ByblosThe Law, the Prophets, the WritingsHebrew canon (C.E. 90)Septuagint-deuterocanonical books Moral guide, ethical and religious stabilityNot a philosophical treatise

  • Basic Motifs of the BibleBiblical MonotheismGod exists before the worldGod pronounces creation as goodHumans are the crown of creationGod deeply involved in the world

  • Basic Motifs of the BibleThe Covenant I will be your God; you will be my peopleTestament = PromiseRenewed covenant = New Testament

  • Basic Motifs of the BibleEthicsMoral code for individuals and societyTen CommandmentsProhibitions, positive commandsProphetic writingsCritics of social injustice, defenders of poorReminders of the covenant

  • Basic Motifs of the BibleModels and typesEvents, stories, characters as modelsBook of JobContemporary impact of biblical traditionLiteratureArtSocial institutions

  • Dura-EuroposEvidence of religious buildingsearly Christian meeting house and synagogueComplex religious existencepagan temples and homesArtistic mingling of Eastern and Roman styles

  • Baptistery wall painting: Christ Healing theParalyticca.A.D.232Paint on plasterObject: 145 x 88 cm (57 1/16 x 34 5/8in.)Yale-French Excavations atDura-Europos

  • 6.6 Fresco of Moses and the Exodus, from the Dura-Europos synagogue. Damascus, Syria

    6.6 Fresco of Moses and the Exodus, from the Dura-Europos synagogue. Damascus, Syria

  • The Beginnings of ChristianityLife of JesusGospelsProphetic tradition of JesusParables, BeatitudesJesus as Christ, the MessiahSignificance of resurrection

  • Christianity SpreadsSaul of Tarsus (Paul)Tireless missionary Theological lettersEarly martyrsVibia PerpetuaSocial, religious factors for growthPeace, facility of travel, koine, audienceEmphasis on salvation, freedomNo class distinction

  • Christian PersecutionNeros CircusClaudius, Decius, Valerian, DiocletianChristians as traitors to the stateRefusal to express pietsApologistsTertullian (155/160-225)Justin Martyr (100-165)Emperor Constantine

  • Christian Expansion http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/maps/christ.html

  • Early Christian ArtCatacombs, underground cemeteriesFrescoesSalvation; Communion; Virgin and ChildGlass and SculptureChrist as Good Shepherd, glass disksCarved sarcophagiInscriptionsName, date of death, decorative symbol

  • 6.7 The Good Shepherd, early 4th century ce. Catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Rome, Italy

  • Bowl Base with Old and New Testament Scenes, ca. 350400Byzantine, said to have been found in 1715 in the Roman catacomb of Saint CallistoGlass, gold leaf

  • Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ, early 300s (with modern restoration)Roman Marble

  • 6.10 The Good Shepherd, ca 300 ce. Marble, 33 (99 cm)_ high. Museo Pio Cristiano, Vatican Museums, Vatican City, Rome, Italy.

  • 6.9 Chi-rho monogram, 4th century ce. From a wall painting in a Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent, England. Detail of wall painting, 90 cm, diameter of inner circle. The British Museum, London, United Kingdom.

    6.9 Chi-rho monogram, 4th century ce. From a wall painting in a Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent, England. Detail of wall painting, 90 cm, diameter of inner circle. The British Museum, London, United Kingdom.

  • 6.8 Anchor with entwined fish, 4th century ce. Mosaic from the Catacombs of Hermes, Sousse, Tunisia

    6.8 Anchor with entwined fish, 4th century ce. Mosaic from the Catacombs of Hermes, Sousse, Tunisia

  • The Hinton St Mary MosaicDorset, England, Roman Britain, 4th century AD

  • Asiatic garland sarcophagus, Mid-Imperial, Severan period, 200225A.D. Roman Marble

  • Early Christian Architecture

    Basilica-Style ChurchesCurrent site of St. Peters Basilica (Vatican)Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Jerusalem)Jesus burial site

  • Floor plan old St. Peters Basilica

  • Early Christian MusicFrom Jewish traditionsChanting sacred textsProfessional Chorus vs. Single CantorGreek doctrine of ethosInstrumental music = unsuitableStandardization of vocal musicResponsorial, antiphonal

  • 6.14 The Blind Harper, ca 1340-1330 B.C.E. From the tomb of Paatenemmhib, Saqqara, Egypt. Limestone basalt relief, detail, 11 (29 cm) high. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Leiden, Netherlands.

  • Chapter Six: Discussion QuestionsDiscuss contemporary examples that illustrate the permeation of the biblical tradition in our culture.Explain why Nero and other Roman emperors were unwilling to tolerate Christianity. From a political standpoint, was the severity of punishment inflicted on Christians warranted? Why or why not?Consider the archeological findings of Dura-Europos. In what ways does history over-simplify past events? In two thousand years, what will future generations assume about our culture, religions, and religious tolerance? Explain.

    ***6.3 The Spoils of Jerusalem, c. 81 ce. Passageway relief from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy// Werner Forman/ Art Resource, NY*******6.6 The Crossing of the Red Sea, c. 239 ce. ( Princeton University Press/Art Resource, NY)*******6.6 The Good Shepherd, c. 300 ce. Marble. 33 (99 cm) high. Museo Pio Cristiano, Vatican Museums, Vatican State// Scala/Art Resource, NY*6.9 Chi Rho Monogram, 4th century ce. From a wall painting in a Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent, England. British Museum, London/HIP/Art Resource, NY*6.9 Anchor with entwined fish, 4th century ce. Mosaic from the Catacombs of Hermes, Sousse, Tunisia// The Art Archive/Archaeological Museum, Sousse, Tunisia/Gianni Dagli Orti 44. Hinton St Mary MosaicA mosaic floor from Roman Britain showing one of the oldest surviving depictions of Jesus Christ.Listen to this programme on the BBCThis mosaic is probably one of the oldest surviving depictions of Christ. It comes from a Roman villa in Dorset. Christ is portrayed as a fair-haired and clean-shaven man wearing a tunic and cloak. Behind his head are the letters chi (X) and rho (P), the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ - Christos. Christ's head is a p

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