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  • 88 The PhraseChapter 5


    A. Identifying and Classifying Prepositional Phrases

    Identify the prepositional phrase in each of the following sen- tences. Then, classify each phrase as an adjective phrase or an adverb phrase, and write the word that the phrase modifies.

    EXAMPLE 1. The chairs in the kitchen need new cushions.

    1. in the kitchen—adjective phrase—chairs

    1. I wish I were better at tennis. 2. The Rio Grande is the boundary between Texas and Mexico. 3. Those apples come from Washington State. 4. The most popular name for the United States flag is the Stars

    and Stripes. 5. The pony with a white forelock is Sally’s. 6. Through the window crashed the baseball. 7. Cathy Guisewite is the creator of.that comic strip. 8. During the last presidential election, we watched

    the national news often. 9. The first United States space shuttle was launched in 1981.

    10. Outside the door the hungry cat waited patiently.

    The Phrase Prepositional,Verbal,

    and Appositive Phrases

    1. adv. [5a, b, d]

    2. adj. [5a–c]

    3. adv. [5a, b, d]

    4. adj. [5a–c]

    5. adj. [5a–c]

    6. adv. [5a, b, d]

    7. adj. [5a–c]

    8. adv. [5a, b, d]

    9. adv. [5a, b, d]

    10. adv. [5a, b, d]

    Diagnostic Preview

    Numerals in brackets refer to the rules tested by the items in the Diagnostic Preview.


    ■ This chapter defines and explains prepositional, verbal, and appos- itive phrases. Prepositional phrases are classified as adjective or adverb phrases, and verbal phrases are classified as particip- ial or infinitive phrases.

    ■ The chapter closes with a Chapter Review including a Writing Application feature that asks students to write a note to a friend, explaining how to care for a pet while the owner is away. Students should use a combined total of ten adjective and adverb phrases in the note.

    ■ For help in integrating this chap- ter with writing assignments, use the Teaching Strands chart on pp. T24–T25.


    C H A P T E RC H A P T E R


    ■ Web resources:

    Practice & Review

    ■ Language & Sentence Skills Practice, pp. 86–103; 104–106

    ■ Language & Sentence Skills Practice Answer Key, pp. 38–48

    Application & Enrichment

    ■ Language & Sentence Skills Practice, pp. 85, 107–108, 109

    ■ Language & Sentence Skills Practice Answer Key, pp. 38, 48–49

    C H A P T E R R E S O U R C E SC H A P T E R R E S O U R C E S

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  • 5 aB. Identifying and Classifying Verbal Phrases

    and Appositive Phrases

    Identify the verbal phrase or appositive phrase in each of the following sentences. Then, classify each phrase as a participial phrase, an infinitive phrase, or an appositive phrase.

    EXAMPLE 1. The snow, falling steadily, formed huge drifts.

    1. falling steadily—participial phrase

    11. Kevin, my cousin, was born in May. 12. The bus, slowed by heavy traffic, arrived at our stop later

    than it usually does. 13. Breaking the eggs into the wok, he made egg foo yong. 14. To remain calm is not always easy. 15. She wants to study Japanese in high school. 16. Maggie’s favorite time of year, late spring, soon arrived. 17. Chilled to the bone, the children finally went inside. 18. Who are the candidates that they plan to support in the

    election? 19. Bethune-Cookman College, Mary McLeod

    Bethune, is in Daytona Beach, Florida. 20. Teresa called Kam, her best friend, to ask about.the assignment.

    What Is a Phrase? 5a. A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.

    VERB PHRASE could have been hiding [no subject]

    PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE in the kitchen [no subject or verb]

    INFINITIVE PHRASE to go with them [no subject or verb]

    If a word group has both a subject and a verb, it is called

    a clause.

    EXAMPLES The wind howled. [Wind is the subject of the verb


    when the Wilsons left [Wilsons is the subject of the verb


    N O T E

    What Is a Phrase? 89

    Reference Note

    For information on

    clauses, see Chapter 6.

    11. app. [5a, i, j]

    12. part. [5a, e, f]

    13. part. [5a, e, f]

    14. inf. [5a, g, h]

    15. inf. [5a, g, h]

    16. app. [5a, i, j]

    17. part. [5a, e, f]

    18. inf. [5a, g, h]

    19. part. [5a, e, f]

    20. app. [5a, i, j]

    5 a

    G R

    A M

    M A


    What Is a Phrase? 89

    Entry-Level Assessment

    Diagnostic Preview This informal Diagnostic Preview is in two parts. Part A can help you determine whether students recognize preposi- tional phrases. Part B focuses on verbal phrases and appositive phrases. Students who have mas- tered adjective modifiers (Chapter 2) and adverb modifiers (Chapter 3) should be able to identify adjective and adverb phrases. You may use the results of the test to determine which students are having difficulty in identifying and using phrases.

    What Is a Phrase? Rule 5a (pp. 89–90)

    OB J E C T I V E

    ■ To determine whether or not given groups of words are phrases

    Differentiating Instruction

    ■ Developmental Language & Sentence Skills Guided Practice, pp. 37–46

    ■ Developmental Language & Sentence Skills Guided Practice Teacher’s Notes and Answer Key, pp. 10–12


    ■ Holt Handbook Chapter Tests with Answer Key, pp. 9–10, 46


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  • Identifying Phrases

    Identify each of the following word groups as a phrase or not a phrase.

    EXAMPLES 1. on the paper 2. after we eat 1. phrase 2. not a phrase

    1. when you know 6. smiling brightly 2. as they walked in 7. to the supermarket 3. in the garden 8. where the car is 4. is sleeping 9. to laugh at myself 5. how she remembered 10. if he says so

    Prepositional Phrases 5b. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

    EXAMPLES under the umbrella for ourselves among good friends next to them

    Notice that an article or another modifier may appear in a prepositional phrase. The first example above contains the article the. In the second example, good modifies friends.

    The noun or pronoun that completes a prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition.

    EXAMPLES Linh Phan has the lead in the school play. [The noun play is the object of the preposition in.]

    Standing between them was the Russian chess champion. [The pronoun them is the object of the preposition between.]

    Any modifier that comes between the preposition and its object is part of the prepositional phrase.

    EXAMPLE Into the thick mist vanished the carriage. [The adjectives the and thick modify the object mist.]

    An object of a preposition may be compound.

    EXAMPLE Come with Rick and me to the concert. [Both Rick and me are objects of the preposition with.]

    Exercise 1

    90 The PhraseChapter 5

    Reference Note

    For a list of commonly used prepositions, see page 58.

    Reference Note

    For more about the object of a preposition, see page 59.

    1. not phr. 2. not phr.

    3. phr. 4. phr.

    5. not phr.

    6. phr. 7. phr.

    8. not phr. 9. phr.

    10. not phr.

    5 b G

    R A

    M M

    A R

    The Phrase90

    Lesson Starter Motivating. To show students the important role that prepositions play in our language, write on a trans- parency or on the chalkboard a “What am I?” riddle that describes an object in your classroom. Use as many prepositional phrases as possi- ble, and underline them. For exam- ple: “I hang above the chalkboard in the center of the front wall. Students glance at me throughout class. My hands move in a circle. What am I?” Ask students to guess the answer to the riddle. [a clock]

    Then, have students take turns creat- ing similar riddles for the rest of the class to answer. Refer students to the list of prepositions on p. 58.

    Modeling and Demonstration Identifying Phrases. Model how to identify a group of words as a phrase or a sentence by using the example could have been hiding. First, ask if the example could have been hiding has a subject. [no] Next, ask if the example has a verb. [yes] Then, ask if the example is used as a single part of speech. [yes, it is used as a verb] Point out that since the definition of a phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject, the example is a phrase. Now, have a volunteer use another example from this chapter to demonstrate how to identify a group of words as a phrase or a sentence.



    What Is a Phrase? Practice � Language & Sentence Skills Practice, p. 86

    � Developmental Language & Sentence Skills, pp. 37–38

    R E S O U R C E SR E S O U R C E S

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  • Be careful not to confuse an infinitive with a prepositional phrase beginning with to. A prepositional phrase always has an ob