chemical hazard chapter 8
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DESCRIPTIONbachelor education in subject basic Health & Safety Legislation
- 1. Sitti Sauda binti kuyong 201301-00024 Faridah Donna 201301-0020 Fresnah binti Ompiduk 201301-00017
- 2. Chemical hazard A chemical accident is the unintentional release of one or more hazardous substances which could harm human health or the environment. Chemical hazards are systems where chemical accidents could occur under certain circumstances. Have two type Physical and Health An element or mixture of elements or synthetic substances that are considered harmful to employees. Chemical hazards may be described under three broad headings - flammability, reactivity and health.
- 3. Chemical hazards Chemicals can affect the skin by contact or the body either through the digestive system or through the lungs if air is contaminated with chemicals, vapors, mist or dust. There can be an acute (immediate) effect, or a chronic (medium to long-term) effect from the accumulation of chemicals or substances in or on the body.
- 4. Flammability Flammable substances are those that readily catch fire and burn in air. A flammable liquid does not itself burn; it is the vapors' from the liquid that burn. For a liquid, the flash point, auto-ignition temperature, explosive limits, vapor density and ability to accumulate an electrostatic charge are important factors in determining the degree of fire hazard.
- 5. Reactivity Reactive chemical hazards invariably involve the release of energy (heat) in relatively high quantities or at a rapid rate. If the heat evolved in a reaction is not dissipated, the reaction rate can increase until an explosion results. Some chemicals decompose rapidly when heated. Light or mechanical shock can also initiate explosive reactions. Some compounds are inherently unstable and can detonate under certain conditions of pressure and temperature, while others react violently with water or when exposed to air.
- 6. Health Contact with many chemicals can result in adverse health effects. The nature and magnitude of toxic effects will depend on many factors including the nature of the substance, route of exposure, magnitude of the dose, duration of exposure, and individual susceptibility.
- 7. hazardous chemicals Categories of hazardous chemicals: Flammable or explosive Gasoline, kerosene Irritating to skin, lungs, eyes Strong acids, strong alkali (lye), paint fumes Interfere with oxygen uptake, delivery, and use in body Carbon monoxide, Hydrogen sulfide, cyanide
- 8. Bhopal Gas Disaster The Union Carbide Pesticide Plant in Bhopal, released 40 tons of Methyl Isocyanides (MIC) gas, killing between 2,500 to 5,000 people in the early hours of the morning. The Worlds worst Industrial Disaster. The gas being heavier than air, started entering into the homes of the unwary population. Many who panicked and ran out also got crushed in stampedes. Around 500,000 were estimated to be exposed to the gas & around 20,000 have died as a result. Over 120,000 continue to suffer from the from the effects of the disaster. The Bhopal disaster brought into sharp focus the unprecedented potential of hazardous chemical release in terms of loss of life, health, injury and evacuation.
- 9. Henna hazard: Chemical causes ornate allergies
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