chemical hazard what is a chemical hazard?
Post on 18-Jan-2018
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DESCRIPTIONChemical Hazards Physical Health
Chemical hazard What is a Chemical Hazard?
Any chemical that can cause illness, injury, or an emergency. Chemical Hazards Physical Health Chemical health hazard
Irritants Corrosives Sensitizer Target-Organ Chemicals Nephrotoxins Hepatotoxins Neurotoxins Agents which act on the blood Agents which damage the lungs Eye hazards Reproductive Carcinogens Physical hazard Fire hazard oxidizers flammable Reactive chemicals
pyrophorics oxidizers flammable Combustibles Explosive Reactive chemicals Water reactive Unstable Chemical Health Effects
Irritants: Inflame skin or eye tissues on contact. Corrosives: Destroy skin tissue at point of contact. Sensitizers: Cause allergic reactions in normal tissue after exposure. Target-Organ Chemicals: Damage specific body organs and systems. Reproductive Hazards: Change genetic information in egg or sperm cells and/or damage fetus after conception. Carcinogens: Cause cancer. Irritants . Is the inflammation results from concentrations low concentration (far below those needed to cause corrosion). Common irritants include substances such as: ammonia alkaline dusts and mists epoxy resins ozone nitrogen dioxide phosphorus chloride 2- Corrosive Visible damage, or irreversible damage to body tissue Acids Caustics (or bases) Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid Caustics (or bases) pH Scale Acids 1 7 14 Agents which act on the blood Agents which damage the lungs
3-Target organ effect 1 Hepatotoxins 2 Nephrotoxins 3 Neurotoxins 4 Agents which act on the blood 5 Agents which damage the lungs 6 Eye hazards 1- Hepatotoxins Chemicals which produce liver damage Example : Carbon Tetrachloride, nitrosamines 2-Nephrotoxins Chemicals which produce kidney damage
Examples: Halogenated Hydrocarbons, uranium Examples: Mercury, carbon disulfide, lead
3- Neurotoxins Chemicals which produce their primary toxic effects on the nervous system Examples: Mercury, carbon disulfide, lead 5- Agents which act on the blood
Decrease hemoglobin function, deprive the body tissues of oxygen Examples : Carbon monoxide, cyanides 6- Agents which damage the lungs
Chemicals which damage pulmonary tissue Signs and Symptoms: Cough, tightness in the chest, loss of breath Chemicals: Asbestos (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), silica Reproductive Hazards Chemicals which damage reproductive capabilities
Includes chromosomal damage (mutations) and damage to fetuses (teratogenesis) Signs and Symptoms: Birth defects, sterility Chemicals examples: Lead Carcinogens A carcinogen commonly refers to any agent that can initiate or speed the development of malignant tumors Carcinogens commonly used in significant quantities include formaldehyde (Formalin solutions), benzene, ethylene oxide, and chloroform. physical health hazard
Reactive chemicals Fire hazard Explosive Flammable hazarded material
What are flammable and combustible liquids? Flammable and combustible liquids are present in almost every workplace. Fuels and many common products like solvents, thinners, cleaners, adhesives, paints, waxes and polishes may be flammable or combustible liquids What is a flashpoint? The flashpoint of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which the liquid gives off enough vapors to be ignited (start burning) Flammable Chemicals Examples: diethyl ether, acetone, hexanes, ethanol, methanol flammability rating is given by a number 4-0 in flammability rating of diethyl ether is "4" while acetone, methanol, ethanol, and hexanes are "3". Ether is extremely flammable and any spark or simply heat can ignite it. flammable liquid haveFlashing point C flammable material Protection
Never use ether in a lab that has an open flame anywhere in the room. Be careful not to spill any flammable solvent (especially ether) on a heating mantle or hot plate. Keep them away from electrical outlets. A pyrophoric A pyrophoric substance ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55C (130F).Examples are iron sulfide and White phosphorus They can be handled safely in atmospheres of nitrogen. Most pyrophoric fires should be extinguished with a Class D fire extinguisher for burning metals. Explosives is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, Nitroglycerin: A highly unstable and sensitive liquid. Acetone peroxide: A very unstable white organic peroxide. TNT: Yellow insensitive crystals that can be melted and cast without detonation. Nitrocellulose: A nitrated polymer which can be a high or low explosive depending on nitration level and conditions Reactive chemicals A water-reactive substance is one that spontaneously undergoes a chemical reaction with water. Notable examples include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and caesium Unstable hazard : Radioactive material oxidizing agent hazard
An oxidizing agent (also oxidant, oxidizer or oxidizer) is the element or compound gaining electrons (and is thus often called an electron acceptor), Examples Oxygen (O2) Ozone (O3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other inorganic peroxides Fluorine (F2), chlorine (Cl2), and other halogens What Should the Ideal Laboratory Look Like?
Equipment & Ventilation Safety Showers and Eyewashes Chemical Storage Match the Extinguisher to the Risk! Means of Egress/Exit Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS) 1- Ventilation Local Ventilation General Ventilation
Supply Air Diffusers &Room Air Exhausts Should be Located So As to Avoid Intake of Contaminated Air Windows Should be Operable Local Ventilation Fume Hoods Used For Operations that Give Off: Noxious Odors Flammable or Poisonous Vapors 2- Safety Showers and Eyewashes
Must Be Available in All Lab Areas That Use or Store Chemicals Which Are Corrosive or an Irritant to the Eyes or Skin Combination Eye Wash & Drench Hose Units at the Sink are Now Available Safe Storage of Chemicals is a Necessity in Every hospitals!
3- Chemical Storage Safe Storage of Chemicals is a Necessity in Every hospitals! Minimizes Exposure to Staff toCorrosive and Toxic Chemicals Lessens the Risk of Fire Prevents the Mixing of Incompatibles & the Creation of an Emergency Situation The Donts of Chemical Storage!
Avoid storing any chemical above eye level Dont store incompatible chemicals together Dont store chemicals near sources of heat or sunlight Dont store chemicals in the hoods or acids on metal shelves Avoid storing anything on the floor, especially glass bottles Ideal Storage Area Set-Up
Acids Na, Li bases Room Should Have: Eye Wash Safety Shower Emergency Phone Fire Extinguisher Oxidizers Dry Chemicals Flammables Cabinet Metal Salts Nitrates Spill Materials 4- Match the Extinguisher to the Risk
A for "Ash" Class A fires involve organic solids such as paper and wood. B for "Barrel" Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids, including petrol, grease, and oil C for "Current" Class C fires involve electric current D for "Dynamite" Class D fires involve combustible metals. K for "Kitchen Oils and fats 5- Means of Egress/ Exit Two or more well- marked & unobstructed evacuation exits are recommended in a lab. 6-Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
(MSDS) are one of the most important tools available to employers for providing information, and protection to workers from hazardous chemicals which are used in the workplace. Material Safety Data Sheets required information
Identity of the chemical Physical and chemical characteristics Physical hazards Chemical hazards Primary routes of entry exposure limits Control measures Emergency procedures thechemical hazardous Date of preparation Name, address and telephone of the manufacturer 1- organic solvent 2- acids 3- bases 4- mercury
Be Prepared for Small Incidental Spills Spills Chemical Categories 1- organic solvent 2- acids 3- bases 4- mercury Proper Incidental Spill Control Equipment Includes:
Spill Control Materials Such As Spill Control Pillows, Pads, Booms, etc Scoops, Brooms, Pails & Bags Absorbent such as Diatomaceous Earth Neutralizers for Acids & Alkalis Mercury Spill Control Kit Examples of spill cleanup materials include:
trisodium phosphate sand sodium bicarbonate for acids powdered citric acid for bases "Oil-Dri," "Zorb-All," "Speedi-Dri" paper towels Waste Chemical Disposal
Requires: Proper storage same rules apply make sure waste chemicals are compatible Proper labeling Containers containing hazardous waste must be labeled with the words HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-planning know what waste youre creating prior to carrying out experiments Record-keeping of all waste chemicals on hand and those already picked up for disposal 1- Give the names of the two chemical hazards.
2. What name is given to a chemical which will burst into flame when contacted by air? 3.What is a health hazard? 4. Which kind of health hazard destroys skin on contact? 5. Chemicals that cause sterility, fetal death, and birth defects are called ____________. 6. What is a carcinogen? 7. Give the three states in which a chemical can exist. 8.What is an MSDS? 9.What kind of information is found on the MSDS?