Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy chapter 3

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Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy chapter 3

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<ul><li><p>Leadership Is Developed through Education and ExperienceLeadership and learning are indispensable to each other.~John F. Kennedy</p><p>Chapter3</p></li><li><p>The Action-Observation-Reflection ModelLeadership development is enhanced when the experience involves three different processes:ActionObservationReflection</p><p>McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>The Spiral of ExperienceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*Figure 3-1</p></li><li><p>Colin Powell and the A-O-R ModelActionPowells multiple calls for the parachutists to check their lines.ObservationPowells shocked realization of the potentially fatal accident that would have occurred had he not double-checked the static lines.ReflectionThe lesson that Powell drew from the experience: Always check the small things.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>The Key Role of Perception in the Spiral of ExperienceExperience is not just a matter of what events happen to you; it also depends on how you perceive those events.Perception affects all three phases of the action-observation-reflection model.People actively shape and construct their experiences.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Perception and ObservationObservation and perception both deal with attending to events around us.We are selective in what we attend to and what we, in turn, perceive.Perceptual sets can influence any of our senses, and they are the tendency or bias to perceive one thing and not another.Factors that can trigger a perceptual set:FeelingsNeedsPrior experienceExpectations McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Perception and Observation (continued)Stereotypes about genders, race, etc., represent powerful impediments to learning since they function as filters which distort ones observational abilities.We all have biases, although we are usually unaware of them.We only become aware of our perceptual sets when we spend time reflecting about the content of a leadership training program or a particular leadership situation.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Perception and ReflectionReflection deals with how we interpret our observations.Perception is inherently an interpretive, or a meaning-making, activity.Attributions are the explanations we develop for the behaviors or actions we attend to.The tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes of behavior and underestimate the environmental causes when others fail is called the fundamental attribution error.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Perception and Reflection (continued)Self-serving bias is the tendency to make external attributions for ones own failures, yet make internal attributions for ones successes.Actor/observer difference refers to the fact that people who are observing an action are much more likely than the actor to make the fundamental attribution error.Reflection also involves higher functions like evaluation and judgment, not just perception and attribution.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Perception and ActionResearch has shown that having expectations (positive or negative) about others can subtly influence our actions, and these actions can, in turn, affect the way others behave.A persons expectations about another may influence how he acts toward her, and in reaction to his behavior she may act in a way that confirms his expectation.The self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when our expectations or predictions play a causal role in bringing about the events we predict.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>The Role of Expectations in Social InteractionMcGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*Figure 3-2</p></li><li><p>Reflection and Leadership DevelopmentReflection provides leaders with a variety of insights into how to frame problems differently, look at situations from multiple perspectives, or better understand subordinates.Leaders often do not have time to ponder all the possible consequences of their actions or reflect on how they could have accomplished a particular action better.Leaders may not be aware of the value of reflection in leadership development.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Single and Double-Loop LearningSingle-loop learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions.Individuals learn only about subjects within the comfort zone of their belief systems.Double-loop learning involves a willingness to confront ones own views and an invitation to others to do so, too.Openness to information and power sharing with others can lead to better recognition and definition of problems, improved communication, and increased decision-making effectiveness.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Thinking Frames and Multiple PerspectivesThinking Frames refer to the tactics and the strategies people use to organize their thinking and to construe the meaning of events.The development of multiple perspectives may be one of the greatest contributions a formal course in leadership can make to a leaders development.One key to leadership success is having a variety of tools to choose from and knowing when and where to use them.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Leadership Development through ExperienceFactors that make any given experience potent in fostering managerial growth:The people you work withThe characteristics of the task itselfPeople who become leaders in any field tend to first stand out by virtue of their technical proficiency.Leaders emerge or are selected for leadership roles on the basis of their competence or proficiency in their primary role requirements.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Changing Requirements for SuccessMcGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*Figure 3-3</p></li><li><p>The People You Work WithA boss can be a powerful catalyst for growth.Working with others who have different backgrounds, perspectives, or agendas can often be a growth experience.Working with problem subordinates can stimulate managerial growth.Both mentors and mentorees benefit from having the relationship.Having a mentor can result in more career opportunities for the mentoree.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Developmental TasksLeadership development can be enhanced if the environment one works in is changing, dynamic, uncontrollable, and unpredictable.Projects involving strategic planning and projections into an uncertain future can be challenging intellectually and can contribute to a leaders development.The best development opportunities are those that stretch individuals and allow them to test themselves against new and difficult tasks.The risk of possible failure is a strong incentive for managers to learn.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Developmental OpportunitiesOrganizations may not provide the same development opportunities for all their members.There is a striking difference between large and small organizations in the opportunities they offer.The sheer size and impersonal nature of some organizations does not provide the soil in which a young persons leadership can grow.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Making the Most of Your Leadership Experiences: Learning to Learn from ExperienceThe learning events and developmental experiences that punctuate ones life are usually stressful.Being able to go against the grain of ones personal historical success requires an unwavering commitment to learning and a relentless willingness to let go of the fear of failure and the unknown.To be successful, learning must continue throughout life, beyond the completion of ones formal education.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Anatomy of a Learning ExperienceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*Figure 3-4</p></li><li><p>Leadership Development through Education and TrainingResearch has shown that:Education level or academic performance in college was positively related to future managerial success.Educational programs generally have a positive effect on leadership development.Formal education and training programs can help one become a better leader.The content of different leadership programs varies considerably, depending on the target audience.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>University Courses in LeadershipSpitzberg (1987) estimated that over 500 colleges or universities offer some type of leadership training program.The topics covered in most leadership courses include how personality traits, cognitive abilities, values, behaviors, motivation, group dynamics, communication, situational factors, and different theories of leadership can all be used to describe the leadership process.Some courses provide individualized feedback through:Case studiesRole PlayingSimulationsGamesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Leadership Training ProgramsThere are numerous leadership training programs aimed particularly toward leaders and supervisors in industry or public service:LecturesCase studiesRole-playing exercises to improve leadership skillsPrograms for midlevel managers often focus on:Improving interpersonal communicationOral-communicationWritten communicationTips on time management, planning and goal-settingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Leadership Training Programs (continued) Leadership development in the 21st century must occur in more lifelike situations and contexts.Leadership programs for senior executives and CEOs tend to focus on strategic planning, public relations, and interpersonal skills.The best way to guarantee that a leadership program will be useful to you or your organization is to adopt a systematic approach to leadership training.</p><p>McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>Building Your Leadership Self-ImageLeadership develops through experience and formal education.Not everyone wants to be a leader or believes he/she can be.Some people believe that even if they want to be leaders, they may not have what it takes.Experiment and take a few risks with different leadership roles.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li><li><p>SummaryOne way to get more out of your leadership courses and experiences is through the application of the action-observation-reflection model.Be aware of the role perception plays in leadership development.Education and experience can contribute to your development as a leader by enhancing your ability to reflect on and analyze leadership situations.Successful leaders are those who have an extraordinary tenacity in extracting something worthwhile from their experience and in seeking experiences rich in opportunities for growth.McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.3-*</p></li></ul>