detailed presentation on learning disabilities
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- 1. learningdisability(LD)referstoa groupofdisordersthat affectabroad range of academicand functionalskills includingtheabilityto speak, listen, read, write, spell, reasonand organizeinformation
- 2. Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia A language and reading disability Dyscalculia Problems with arithmetic and math concepts Dysgraphia A writing disorder resulting in illegibility Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder) Problems with motor coordination Central Auditory Processing Disorder Difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks Non-Verbal Learning Disorders Trouble with nonverbal cues, e.g., body language; poor coordination, clumsy Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit Reverses letters; cannot copy accurately; Language Disorders (Aphasia/Dysphasia) Trouble understanding spoken language; poor reading comprehension
- 3. Suspected Etiologies of Learning Disabilities NO real causes Might be caused by: Hereditary Teratogenic Medical Environmental
- 4. Types of assessment: Informal assessment Formal psycho educational assessment Learning disabilities Testing for learning disabilities usually involves three primary types of assessment: Testing of intellectual or cognitive potential; Testing of information processing or sensory motor abilities that are indicative of a learning disability; Assessment of current educational achievement.
- 5. INFORMAL ASSESMENT such as classroom assessments, systematic observation, file review and interviews These are as important as administering formal instruments to determine levels of academic skill . For development and identity of strengths and weaknesses in learning processes. Because it is so important to intervene as early as possible, teachers should not wait for formal assessment to occur before they put strategies in place.
- 6. Assessment to identify a learning disability should integrate information from a number of sources, including the family, teachers, counsellors (if involved), learning assistance or other records, and any relevant medical reports Once a student has been referred for a formal assessment, a teacher or principal will need to obtain parent permission and assist the student and their parents in understanding what will occur during the formal assessment process.
- 7. Formal assessment It is done by psychologists It involves the usage of different instruments(tools) psycho-educational assessments reveal difficulties in the areas of perceptual and information processing, language and auditory processing, attention and other areas of executive function, motor abilities and/or social skills as well as reading, written language, or mathematics,
- 8. Tests for Dyslexia o Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test o Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test o Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals o (Subtests of) Woodcock Johnson Psycho educational BatteryIII o (Subtests of) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test o Wechsler Objective Reading Dimension (1993), o Wechsler Objective Numerical Dimension (1996), oWoodcock Reading Mastery Test oGray Oral Reading Test oComprehensive Test of Phonological Processing oTest of Word Reading Efficiency oRapid Automat zed Naming Tasks oPeabody Individual Achievement Test oTest of Early Reading Ability
- 9. Tests for Dysgraphia Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Drawing Berry Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration Test Of Written Language-III (1996).
- 10. Tests for dyscalculia (Subtests of) Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational BatteryIII Wide Range Achievement Test Key Math Diagnostic Assessment Test of Mathematical Abilities (Subtests of) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test
- 11. Assessment of reading: oIdentification of alphabets and knowing the sounds of letters in the early years oWords in isolation i.e. analysis of the kind of difficulties present while reading a word including decoding strategies, these could include substitution, omission or addition of consonants or vowels,. oReading for meaning from a sentence or passage. o Fluency in reading i.e the child reading the text in a word by word, phrase by phrase manner with pauses that do not contribute to the meaning of the text. oDoes the child ignore punctuation while reading o Understanding written directions o Middle school and high school students should be assessed for reading rate.
- 12. Assessment of writing Proper pencil grip Ability to retrieve alphabets representing sounds The formation and legibility of letters or numbers A mixture of print and cursive the appearance of upper case in the middle of a word should also be noted. Spelling as part of comprehension or essay writing, Punctuation Use of vocabulary and synonyms in a piece of free writing, Ability to present ideas in an understandable sequence, Ability to plan and organize a written text for a particular audience or purpose Organization of writing and the mechanics of writing a paragraph or essay. Speed of writing
- 13. Assessment of mathematical skills The ability to recall basic math facts, procedures, rules, or formulas Ability to maintain precision during mathematical work Ability to sequence and carry out successfully multiple steps Understanding of the final goal of the math problem Ability to identify salient aspects of a mathematical situation, particularly in word problems or other problem solving situations where some information is not relevant Ability to remember and understand the vocabulary and language of math Ability to know when irrelevant information is included or when information is given out of sequence Ability to explain and communicate about math, including asking and answering questions Ability to read texts to direct own learning Ability to remember assigned values or definitions in specific problems
- 14. Educational Considerations According to IDEA
- 15. STATISTICS 43% of LD - living at or below the poverty level 1 out of every 5 people in the U.S. has a learning disability. 3 million children (ages 6 through 21) 10% - 15% of the school-age population. With ADHD OR LD SLD Have increased 22% Over past 25 YEARS 48% of those with LD are unemployed. 25 40% OF LD Are on government assistance programs
- 16. ACCORDING TO IDEA THE DISABILTY ESTIMATION
- 17. TRENDS According to(The National Center for Learning Disabilities) KEY FINDINGS INCLUDE: o The number of school-age children with learning disabilities has declined by 14% during the last decade. o 2.5 million public school students about 5% of all students in public schools were identified as having learning disabilities in 2009; o Graduated students with LD (64%) Than a decade ago (52%) . o dropping out of school (22%) than in 1999 (40%). o Only 10% of students with learning disabilities enrolled in a 4-year college within 2 years of leaving high school. o Males comprise almost two-thirds of school age students with LD who receive special education services;
- 18. Contd o The cost of educating a student with LD is 1.6 times the expenditure for a general education student o In 2008, 62% of students with LD spent 80% or more of their in- school time in general education classrooms o The high school dropout rate among students with LD was 22%in 2008, down from 40% in 1999; o Students with LD go on to postsecondary at lower rates than their non-disabled peers; o In 2005, 55% of adults with LD were employed compared to 76% of th
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