learning disabilities


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LEARNING DISABILITIES. Resource File Edu 255 Fall 2012 Donita Mallory . Table of Contents. Federal Definition NJCLD Definition Terminology Classification Prevalence Causes Characteristics Early Intervention Placement Options Assessment Transition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



LEARNING DISABILITIESResource File Edu 255 Fall 2012 Donita Mallory

Table of ContentsFederal DefinitionNJCLD DefinitionTerminologyClassificationPrevalenceCausesCharacteristicsEarly InterventionPlacement OptionsAssessmentTransitionBest Practiced InstructionMaterialsMethodologiesInstructional StrategiesTechnologiesResourcesLocalStateFederalBibliographyFederalDefinitionThe term specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p. 187).

NJCLD DefinitionNational Joint Committee on Learning DisabilitiesLearning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (for example, sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of those conditions or influences (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p.188).

Terminology Learning Disabilities

Aphasia: difficulty with languageAuditory Processing Disorder: difficulty hearing differences between soundDyscalculia: difficulty with mathematicsDysgraphia: difficulty with handwritingDyslexia: difficulty readingDysnomia: problems remembering names or recalling words Dyspraxia: Difficulty with fine motor skillsLanguage Disabilities: difficulty in listening, speaking, reading, writing, or spellingMinimal Brain Injury: physical damage to brains tissue or structureVisual Processing Disorder: Difficulty interpreting visual information

ClassificationIDEAIndividuals with Disabilities Education ActStudent doesnt achieve with their age and ability levelSevere discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in academic skillsRTI Response to InterventionTIER 1Universal Screening and Benchmarking of All StudentsTIER 2Identifying Specific Strengths and Weaknesses and Progress MonitoringTIER 3:Diagnostic Testing and Intensive Progress Monitoring


According to U.S. government figures, public schools have identified as learning disabled between 5 and 6 percent of students between six and seventeen years of age (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p.191). The classification of learning disabilities has more than doubled since the mid 1970s, an dis increasing yearly. Research suggests that the male gender is at greater risk of being classified as having some type of LD.


After much research, it is believed that learning disabilities are caused from a dysfunction within the brain or central nervous system due to genetic, teratogenicity, or medical factors.

CharacteristicsEducationalReading is most difficultWritten Language: handwriting, spelling, compositionSpoken Language: grammar, word meaning, phonologyMathBehavioralAttention & Hyperactivity: distractibility, impulsivityMemory & Metacognitive: forgetfulness, awareness of own thinking processSocial & Emotional: depression, rejection, suicidal, loneliness, isolation

Early InterventionDiagnosis at the preschool age is more a predictionDevelopmental delays and behavioral issues are easy pinpointedEven though its wise to be cautious in identifying preschool children as learning disabled, researchers have determined that there are several risk factors that are relatively good predictors of later learning disabilities (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2009, p.215).

DesigningImplementingAssessing Testing Accommodations Assessments read orallyVisual print enlargedAssessment separated into more than one settingExtended allotted time Small group assessmentCurriculum based measurementInformal reading inventoryStandardized achievement assessment

Transition Transition into AdulthoodMay have problems learning, socializing, holding jobs, and living independently and just coping with daily living situationsAbility to set goalsAcceptance of weaknessesSupport sociallyQuality on-the-job or postsecondary vocational trainingAbility to take control of their life

Best Practiced InstructionMaterialsPhonics game $2 and up Taped text $3 and upEducational Videos $3 and upNotecards less than $1Ruler less than $1Pencil grips $2 for 10

MethodsSmall amounts of materialRhythm & music for math factsOral examsWhispering when one on one & warning before bell or fire alarmDemonstrate activitiesStudent dictation of assignmentsSpeak slow and clear using simple sentencesBest Practiced Instruction contInstructional StrategiesDirect instructionMaterial broke into small stepsRegular quality feedbackDiagramsGraphicsPicturesAllow ample independent practice on conceptsEnlarged print

TechnologiesTalking word processors $45Braille hardware stickers $20Electronic math worksheets Monitor screen magnifiers $45Talking calculators $12 to $80Smartboards $900 to $3000

Informative ResourcesLocalGrowing Minds Learning Center Owensboro, KY 1-270-827-4652 http://www.growingmindslearningcenter.com/Department of Education 1-800-KDE-5372Public School in areaWendell Fosters Campus for Developmental Disabilities, Owensboro, KY http://www.wkatc.org/assistive_technology_center/Learning Disability Center http://www.medicinenet.com/learning_disability/owensboro-ky_city.htm

StateLearning Disabilities Association of KY, Inc. http://www.ldaofky.org/KY Department of Education Special Education http://education.ky.gov/specialed/excep/pages/default.aspx.Kentuckiana Dyslexia Services http://www.kydyslexiaservices.com/KY Accessibility Services http://kentucky.gov/health/Pages/disabilityResources.aspxKATS Network http://www.katsnet.org/KY Services for Children and Youth http://chfs.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/374FD204-942B-4166-8B74-BB5C6443358/0/ResDir2005.pdf

FederalNational Center for Learning Disabilities http://www.ncld.org/Learning Disabilities Association of America http://www.ldanatl.org/CHADD http://www.chadd.org/

The Brescia Difference The Brescia difference is a conceptual framework defining Brescias idea of what a professional educator should model, which consists of ethics, advocacy, service, and a commitment to lifelong learning. The resource file is a useful tool to assist us as future professional educators. Equality and fairness are important ethical characteristics we should example toward each student with or without any exceptionalities. Through the research process, I learned to focus on the students strengths instead of their weaknesses and to see the student first before their disability. As for advocacy, we need to be able to assist in helping the student and their family learn what resources are available to them. Get the families involved in the students education; also accommodate material and assessments to enable student success. Service isnt only toward the student but also the family. We should focus on success for both the student and the family. Ive learned through this procedure of creating a resource file that life is no longer the same after a child born with disabilities comes into the family. There are major adjustments from all different angles of life and as a future educator I want to be able to be of service to the family any way I can. Also, teachers should committee to a life of learning. I believe the knowledge gained isnt to be conserved; rather it is to be shared for the betterment of others. BibliographyAdaptive Technology and Accessibility Centers Braille Hardware. (2012, April 160. Indiana University. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://www.indiana.edu/~iuadapts/technology/hardware/braille/index.htmlCanter, A. (2004). Learning Disabilities TeachersAndFamilites. New Directions in Identifying Learning Disabilities. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.teachersandfamilies.com/open/parent/idea2.cfmGibson, Ken. (2012). LearningRx. Retrieved from http://www.learningrx.com/some-types-of-learning-disabilities.htmKemp, G., Smith, M., & Segal, J. (2012, November). Learning Disabilities in Children: Types of Disorders and Their Signs. Helpguide helps you helpyourself and other. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htmLDA.(2005-11). Learning Disabilities Association of America. Retrieved from http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/teachers/understanding/types.aspLearning Disabilities: An Overview Reading Topics A-Z Reading Rockets. (2008). Reading Comprehension & language Arts Teaching Strategies for Kids, Reading Rockets.Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/5613/Learning Disabilities Association of America. (n.d.). Retrieved Noverber 11, 2012, from http://www.ldanatl.org/

Myers, B. (2012, June 7). Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities Educational Material Healthy Place. HealthyPlace.com Trusted Mental healthinformation and Support Healthy Place. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.healthyplace.com/adhd/articles/dyslexia-and-learning-disabilities-educational-material/National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2012). Ncld.org. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www.nc


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