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  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 11

    Canes are slightly topped and then are trained and tied to adjacent plant or tying wire. This is done in late winter to minimize risk of cold injury

    Arc Cane system

    Primocanes just prior to training Summer-bearing red raspberry

    Primocanes topped and bundle trained

    Bundle (topped) system

    Top canes to about 6 ft

    Fruiting laterals on floricanes

    Floricane development next spring

    Typical trellis system has 1 or 2 top wire(s) and 2 lower wires (in some cases moveable) but there are many variations

    Trellis – floricane-fruiting raspberry

    • Two moveable lower wires

    Trellis – floricane-fruiting cultivars

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 12

    • Trellis should have a “T” piece of some kind to hold up primocanes and short floricanes if double cropping

    Maintain hedgerow to 1 to 1.5 ft wide using tillage or hoeing

    Trellis – primocane-fruiting cultivars Primocane-fruiting raspberry

    A. Single crop (only produce fruit on primocane)

    B. Double crop (early crop on floricane; later crop on primocane)

    Primocane-fruiting raspberries

    Single crop Before pruning

    Single crop • Prune by cutting

    off primocanes in late winter

    • Use pruners or weed wacker with blade

    After pruning in late winter

    Primocane-fruiting raspberry

    • Primocanes start to grow repeating production cycle by fruiting in late summer through autumn

    Early spring

    Single crop

    Primocane-fruiting raspberry

    Double crop

    Late summer

    • Primocanes fruit and a portion of this cane is left to produce a floricane crop

    Primocane-fruiting raspberry

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 13

    • Tip portion flowers and fruits • Fruiting stops when gets too cold in autumn

    First year

    Second year Should have been pruned in late winter

    Floricane

    Double crop Primocane-fruiting raspberry

    February

    Double crop

    • In late winter, prune off top portion of the canes that fruited in autumn (these are dead)

    Primocane-fruiting raspberry

    Spring Floricane crop in early summer

    Raspberries in containers • Primocane-fruiting is best • Choose a well-drained potting soil

    mix • One plant per 12 to 25 gallon

    container (drain holes in bottom) • Plant (2 ft apart) in good soil in

    raised bed that is 2 ft deep. Need good drainage (below bed also)

    • Double crop • Remove dead floricanes after fruiting • Remove dead primocane tips in winter • Thin primocanes to best 3 in the pot in early summer

    Floricane crop, June 27

    Primocanes will fruit in late summer - fall

    Black Raspberries Jewel (only cultivar recommended for good

    production & flavor)

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=4qApLtLL1JPM1M&tbnid=4GPIHiDQle2cQM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http://blackgold.bz/container-gardening-tips-for-growing-tomatoes-and-berries/&ei=ow3wUqjyJoyGogT52oLADQ&bvm=bv.60444564,d.cGU&psig=AFQjCNFEPGSKJJet0QOUSjzqVjPEIZDnaQ&ust=1391550223765642

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 14

    Purple Raspberries

    Brandywine

    Royalty

    Hybrids of red and black raspberry (grow and prune like black raspberry)

    • Plant 3 ft in the row on raised beds or flat ground

    • Install trellis in planting year (T post at about 4 ft high)

    • Train canes onto wires for harvest the following year

    Black raspberry Planting year (plant in spring)

    Black raspberry

    Black and purple raspberries do not produce suckers

    Black raspberry

    Primocane tipped (pruned during growing season)

    • Primocanes have strong apical dominance

    • Tip to about 3 ft tall (removing about 6 inches) during the growing season to get branching

    Black raspberry • Primocanes tipped on the left (in summer) • Primocanes branching on the right (in summer)

    Black raspberry • In late winter, shorten branches on primocanes to about 1.5 to 2 ft long • Before pruning on left; after on the right

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 15

    Black raspberry • After pruning in winter

    Black raspberry • In early spring • Floricanes breaking bud

    (producing fruiting laterals) • Primocanes emerge only

    from the base of the plant (the crown)

    Black raspberry • Fruiting on floricane in early summer

    Arcing primocane branches (Aug.)Dying floricanes (after fruiting)

    Black raspberry • In winter • Floricanes are dead • Remove these by

    pruning at the base • Shorten primocane

    branches

    Pruning and Training Raspberries Module

    • 1.25 hours of video in 4 mini lectures • Module includes:

    • types of raspberries grown and regional adaptation • the basics of plant growth and understanding the differences between

    raspberry types • how to prune and train floricane-fruiting red raspberries • how to prune and train floricane-fruiting black raspberries • how to prune and train primocane-fruiting raspberries.

    • https://workspace.oregonstate.edu/course/pruning-raspberries

    https://workspace.oregonstate.edu/course/pruning-raspberries

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 16

    • Primocanes die in mid-season • Floricanes collapse • Plant resistant cultivars • Plant on well-drained soil or

    raised beds

    Common Problems Phytophthora root rot

    Raspberry Bushy Dwarf Virus (RBDV)

    • Pollen borne virus (transferred by bees at bloom) • Cultivars differ in susceptibility • Infected plants produce crumbly fruit; not all produce leaf

    symptoms (below) • No control for infected plants • Remove plants once disease runs through plot

    Herbicide Damage Phytotoxicity from glyphosate

    Leaves are chlorotic and strap-like

    Heat/U.V. Damage Red raspberries, in particular, are sensitive to damage

    from intense u.v. light

    Symptoms are white drupelets on the sun side of fruit

    • Shading reduces problem • Symptoms do not occur in all years

    Spotted Wing Drosophila

    Courtesy, WSU

    Blackberries

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 17

    “Wild” Blackberries Rubus ursinus

    The only true PNW native

    Rubus laciniatus

    ‘Evergreen’ Introduced in 1800’s

    Rubus armeniacus

    ‘Himalaya’ Introduced in 1800’s

    Male plant female plant

    The receptacle is part of the “berry” fruit we eat

    Sliced blackberry fruit

    Aggregate fruit of many drupelets

    drupelet

    calyx

    Three “types” of blackberries Trailing (zone 6-9) e.g. ‘Columbia Star’

    ‘Boysen’ ‘Halls Beauty’

    Erect (zones 6-9) e.g. ‘Navaho’

    ‘Ouachita’ Primocane fruiting: ‘PrimeArk Freedom’

    Semi-erect (zone 5-9) e.g. ‘Triple Crown’

    ‘Galaxy’ ‘Twilight’

    Ouachita

    Columbia Star

    Triple Crown

    Modern breeding programs have led to

    hybrids that have intermediate growth habits

    ‘Columbia Star’

    • Very good flavor • Consistent large berry size • Small seeds • Great for jam and freezing • Fruiting season: Early

    Trailing blackberry cultivar – Thornless Floricane-fruiting

    ‘Hall’s Beauty’(USPPAF)

    Trailing blackberry – Thornless

    • Beautiful ornamental (big double flowers) • Good flavor • Small seeds, great for jam and freezing • Fruiting season: Early

    Floricane-fruiting

    Trailing blackberry

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 18

    During harvest (generally July) Trailing blackberry

    • Floricanes senesce (die) after harvest

    • Prune out the dead canes

    • Cut them to near the crown

    • Do not cut or damage the primocanes

    Pruning and training

    Prune off floricane bundle near crown

    Trailing Blackberries Training primocanes

    Divide primocanes into two bundles

    Train half one way on trellis and the other in the opposite direction

    Trailing Blackberries Training primocanes

    Loop bundles around the two upper training wires

    Cultivars primocane-fruiting erect: Baby CakesTM PrimeArk®Freedom

    Primocane-fruiting blackberry Tip primocanes (at 3 ft)

  • Dr. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University 19

    Bring plants inside if frost is forecast during bloom or fruiting

    Primocane-fruiting blackberry Fruiting on primocane branches Primocane-fruiting blackberry

    • Fruiting on floricanes • Tip new primocanes to 3 ft

    In winter prune primocanes (remove parts that fruited last fall)

    After pruning

    Pruning and Training Blackberries Module

    • 1.75 hours of video in 6 mini lectures • Module includes:

    • types of blackberries grown and regional adaptation • the basics of plant growth and understanding the differences between types • how to prune and train floricane-fruiting trailing blackberries • how to prune & train floricane-fruiting semi-erect and erect blackberries • how to prune & train primocane-fruiting blackberries for single or double

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