etruscan and roman art
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DESCRIPTIONEtruscan and Roman Art. Review for Midterm. A: Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydorus of Rhodes T: Laocoon and his Sons D: 25 B.C. M: Marble. Extra Credit. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_emperors#The_Principate. 1 - entablature 2 - column 3 - cornice 4 - frieze - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Etruscan and Roman Art
Etruscan and Roman ArtReview for Midterm
A: Agesander, Athenodoros, and Polydorus of RhodesT: Laocoon and his SonsD: 25 B.C.M: Marble
1 - entablature2 - column3 - cornice4 - frieze5 - architrave or epistyle6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes)7 - shaft8 - base9 - stylobate10 - stereobate
During the Monarchy Latin and Etruscan kings ruled Rome from the date of the citys foundation by Romulus until the revolt against Tarquinius Superbus.The Republic lasted from the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus until the bestowing of the title Augustus on Octavian, the grandnephew of Julius Caesar and victor over Mark Antony in the Civil War that ended the Republic.The Early empire began with the rule of Augustus and his Julio-Claudian successors and continued until the end of the Flavian dynasty.The High Empire began with the rule of Nerva and the Spanish Emperors, Trajan and Hadrian, and ended with the last of the Antonine Dynasty.The Late Empire began with the Severan dynasty and included the so-called soldier emperors of the third century, the tetrarchs, and Constantine, the first Christian emperor.Model
6th Century B.C.
Apulu510 500Painted terracottaAlmost 6 ft!
Capitoline WolfRome, 500 480 B.C.Became symbol of the city of Rome, has Romulus and Remus suckling at the Wolf, later addition by Antonio Pollaiuolo. It is a 3 foot tall bronze. Romulus founds Rome in 750 B.C., and this is made in Rome 250 years later. Shows two major Etruscan themes: strength and vitality, shown by the glaring eyes, snarling face and general ferocity of the wolf, and she is giving her life power to the twins symbolically showing the Etruscans as fierce and dangerous as well. The stylized repeating motifs of hair is a major similarity to the Greek geometric style. Similar?
Romans believed that the head alone was enough to constitute a portrait.The Greek, in contrast, believed that the head and body were inseparable parts of an integral whole, so there portraits were always full length.Portrait busts were often modeled on a wax death mask.They capture the advanced age and wisdom of the subject.Reinforces the idea of the Republic by depicting the virtue of older citizens.
Head of a Roman Patrician75 50 B.C.MarblePortrait Bust
A Young Flavian Womanc. 90 A.D.MarblePortrait Bust
Ara PacisPax Romana (Latin for "Roman peace") was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Since it was established by Caesar Augustus it is sometimes called Pax Augusta. Its span was about 207 years (27 BC to 180 AD).
Dedicated on Livias birthday in 9 B.C.Reconstructed during Mussolinis fascist era.Procession of the Imperial family echoes the Panathenaic procession.Note the realism of children.Augustus enacted laws to increase the birthrate amongst the Roman nobility.Logically, nobles shown with their families.Note the realism within folding clothes.
Augustus of Prima Porta
BreastplateEarly first century A.D.Cupid signifies divinity.Julian dynasty traced their ancestry to Venus.Barefoot and god-like.
The Roman Villa
House of the Vettii2nd century B.C.Rebuilt 62-79 A.D.
Samnite House Herculaneum
First StyleLate 2nd Century B.C.Buon Fresco on Stucco
Dionysiac Mystery FriezeSecond Style Buon Frescoca. 60-50 B.C.Illusion
Gardenscape, Villa of LiviaSecond StyleBuon Fresco30-20 B.C.Atmospheric Perspective
Third Style Boscotrecase VillaElegance is keyMaximizes decorative qualities through use of architectural and pictorial motifs in frescoes A style of delicate linear fantasies10 B.C.
Fourth Style, Domus Aurea, 64-68 A.D.
Seamless mix of architecture and illusion creates unnatural spaces/impossibly fragmentary architectural vistas
House of the Vettii 63 79 A.D.
!!!Preceding slide as well!!!
Portrait of Husband and Wife, Pompeii, 79?
She is depicted with stylus and wax tablet, he has a scroll.how did they wish to bee seen?Still Life With Peaches, 62 79, Herculaneum
Nature Morte = Still LifeFor some unknown reason, there are no more frescoes after 79 A.D.
Roman ArchitectureThe ForumAt the center of Roman cities was a big open space called the Forum. People met there to do business, to sell and buy things, to see their friends, to find out about the news, and even to go to school. Usually the Forum had stone pavement, and around the edges there were fancy buildings: temples, and basilicas, and sometimes stores (shops). In some cities the Forum had a platform in it that people could stand on to make speeches. This platform was called the Rostra. The ArchA masonry arch1.Keystone 2.Voussoir 3.Extrados 4.Impost 5.Intrados 6.Rise 7.Clear span 8.Abutment
VaultsAbarrel vault, also known as atunnel vaultor awagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design. The barrel vault is the simplest form of avault: effectively a series ofarchesplaced side by side, i.e., one after another.
ArcadesAnarcadeis a succession ofarches, each counterthrusting the next, supported bycolumnsorpiersor a covered walk enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians.
Groin VaultAgroin vaultorgroined vault(also sometimes known as adouble barrel vaultorcross vault) is produced by the intersection atright anglesof twobarrel vaults. The word groin refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults; cf.ribbed vault. Sometimes thearchesof groin vaults are pointed instead of round (see the image of the Grdslsa Church below). In comparison with abarrel vault, a groin vault provides good economies of material and labour. Thethrustis concentrated along the groins orarrises(the four diagonal edges formed along the points where the barrel vaults intersect), so the vault need only beabuttedat its four corners.
Where is the thrust?
Pont du Gard
Temple of PortunusLate 2nd Century B.C.Note stylistic similarities to Etruscan ArchitectureWhat is distinctly Roman?
PilasterThe pilaster is anarchitectural elementinclassical architectureused to give the appearance of a supportingcolumnand to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. In contrast, anengaged columnorbuttresscan support the structure of a wall and roof above.Roman ColosseumBuilt by Vespasian and his son Titus.80 A.D.Design comes from Greek outdoor theaters, this one obviously embellishing the size of these theaters, this being called an amphitheater, which is invented by the Romans.The building itself becomes flatter as it rises up, causes the eye to move upward itself and view the whole building at once.This is one of the first buildings ever to use a concrete core to stabilize the structure. The Pantheon later on also accomplishes this feat.Constructed to hold athletic events, specifically gladiatorial events. It was built over what was once a pond, and it was designed to hold water, so it could be flooded and used to hold naval battles as events as well.A built in drainage system allowed for easy cleanup of blood and water. Roman ColosseumThe entire exterior is a series of arcades, or connecting arches, with entablatures and engaged column work going up three stories in height. Each floor represents one style of architecture, moving from the oldest and less intricate on the ground floor (Doric) to the newest and most detailed (Corinthian) on the third floor (with Ionic in the middle on the second floor). This shows the ascension of Roman Architecture over time, from a minimal style to an elaborate style. This became a Roman style for the next few centuries, with the simpler styles occupying the bottom floors and the more elaborate styles occupying the top floors of Roman buildings.Roman Colosseum
Arch of TitusInterior Frieze, Spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem81 A.D.
Trajans ForumAppollodorus of Damascus112 A.D.Basilica UlpiaMarkets of Trajan
Cut into the Quirinal HillAn engaged arch.The basic unit was a tabernasingle room shop covered by a barrel vault54Basilica Ulpia
Apse ClerestoryNave400 x 200 ft. w/o ApsesBecomes the basis for numerous early Christian churches55
Trajans Column 112 A.D.A single, free standing column used to commemorate his victory over the Dacians, Romanian neighbors to the Northeast of Rome. Consists of marble drums cut horizontally and fit on top of one another with a middle pole stabilizing the structure. Consists of twisting images that show the events which led to Trajans victory. Is a narrative frieze, in registers but which flow from one into the other, not separated as much as other friezes.This column shows in detail the trappings that a Roman soldier would have, so it also serves a historical function for modern day scholars to show what life was like as a Roman soldier.The extreme crowding of figures symbolizes the hustle and bustle and intense nature of the Roman army. Trajans Column
Trajans ColumnThe podium at the bottom shows the spoils brought back by Trajan, and contains his ashes as well. The low relief frieze which goes up the column beginning at the bottom with the preparation of the Roman army to invade Romania. A bearded river god watches Trajan and the troops move out of Rome, a walle