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University of Waterloo FR 291 Lecture Notes

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French 291 Lecture Notes

Table of ContentsPage Lecture Notes Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Introduction to Pre-Roman France France from the Roman Conquest to the Early Middle Ages France of the High and Late Middle Ages (987-1461) French Life and Institutions in the Middle Ages The Art of the Middle Ages Historical Background to the Renaissance Life in France in the Renaissance The Renaissance Material Conditions and Architecture High Art in the Renaissance: Sculpture, Painting and Literature Renaissance Literature (cont'd): The Transition from the Renaissance to the 17th Century Louis XIV and Versailles Architecture, Sculpture and Painting in France in the 17th Century The Academies in the 17th Century: Painting (cont'd). The Golden Age of French Theatre The Literature of the 17th Century Louis XV and Life in the 18th Century Architecture, Sculpture and Painting in the 18th Century Art and Thought in the Enlightenment Literature in the 18th Century and the End of the Old Rgime 1 4 8 13 17 23 26 29 33 36 40 42 44 46 48 51 53 55

Review Exercises for Self-Assessment Answer Keys to Review Exercises

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Lecture 1 Introduction to Pre-Roman France1. Geographical features: [MAP 5] a. b. c. d. e. 2. Variety of terrain and climate Good access to sea navigation Temperate climate Navigable rivers Mountain defenses

Prehistory: a. Paleolithic period 1. Lascaux [1514], [M 159] Neolithic period 1. Dolmens St. Michel in Brittany [M 185] 2. Menhirs Carnac

b.

3.

Greeks and Phoenicians a. b. Began to colonize about 1000 B.C. Interested primarily in trade with Gaul

4.

Gaul (600 B.C.-50 A.D.) a. first inhabitants of France known to history 1. Julius Caesar Gallic Wars 2. Strabo Geography 3. Diodorus of Sicily 4. Tacitus 60 tribes; Parisi found Paris Common features: 1. language 2. religion 3. political system

b. c.

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The Great Vessel of Vixd. The Treasure of Vix 1. 500 B.C. 2. Burial of warrior leader woman 3. Contains some of the most important objects of this period of western civilization a. The Great Bronze Vessel of Vix i. over 5 feet or 1 1/2 meters high ii. largest container of its kind remaining anywhere from antiquity b. The Gold Diadem of Vix i. 480 gram diadem c. State Chariot d. Other objects, particularly cups and other ceremonial vessels 4. Important for the evidence it gives us of the nature of early Gallic society a. Trading people b. Powerful and sophisticated civilization c. Women treated as equals

Chapter 1 Questions 1. 2. 3. Discuss the peoples who settled in France before the arrival of the Romans. Discuss the nature of Gallic society (600-50 B.C.). How was Gaul politically organized by the Romans both before and after the introduction of Christianity? What are the principle lasting effects of the Roman conquest of Gaul?

4.

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Lecture 2 France from the Roman Conquest to the Early Middle Ages1. 2. Early Greek and Roman presence in France Final conquest by Rome Vercingetorix defeated 52 BC We know about him through the writings of Julius Caesar Contributions of Rome to French civilisation: a. b. c. d. 500 years of effective administration Latin language urban way of life cities were founded Nimes Arles technical advancement Aquaducts Pont du Gard [G 75] domestic conveniences roads bridges Art Christianity Martyrs of Lyon Blandine Martin of Tours

3.

e.

f. g.

Chapter 2 Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Discuss the effects of the mass migration of Asian peoples into Europe at this time. Explain the origin of the major domus and define his role, using specific examples, during this period of French history. What factors led to a fusion between the German invaders and the Gallo-Roman population left after the collapse of the Roman imperial government? Discuss the rise of Christianity from late Roman times to the early eighth century.

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Merovingian and Carolingian Era1. 2. Meaning of the term "Middle Ages" Merovingian a. Invasions of tribes from the north-east pushed by the Huns Visigoths Alammani Burgundians Bretons Francs Merovaeous Genevieve Troyes Clovis established Paris as his capital Clothilda crowned at Rheims Later merovingian kings were weak dynasty collapsed

b.

c.

d. 3.

Carolingian a. b. c. Charles Martel Battle of Poitiers against Muslims (732) Pepin the Short established the tradition of divine right of kings Charlemagne* known through Einhard's biography expanded the French Kingdom skilled administrator missi dominici plaids capitularies educational reform Alcuin religious changes French Empire declined after Charlemagne's death kingdom divided conflict Oaths of Strasbourg (Serments de Strasbourg) (842) Treaty of Verdun (843)

d.

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Chapter 3 Questions 1. Discuss Charlemagne's support of the Roman Catholic Church with specific reference to policies he introduced. After the breakup of Charlemagne's empire, feudalism grew steadily. Briefly outline the nature of the feudal order and discuss the causes for its growth. Describe the origins of the Normans and their effect on the peoples living in what is now France. Discuss Charlemagne's achievement in extending and governing the kingdom left to him by Pepin the Short. Explain why this unity did not long survive his death.

2.

3.

4.

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Lecture 3 France of the High and Late Middle Ages (987-1461)Capetians (ca. 1000-ca. 1300) Early Valois (ca. 1300-ca. 1450) 1. Capetian Era* Period of expansion of power over the territory of France a. b. Hugues Capet (ca. 941-996) Philip I (1052-1108) Bayeux Tapestry [K 31], [1617] Battle of Hastings Harold

2.

History of everyday life also important during this period a. During the Capetian era: good weather, crops demographic growth founding of the Universities development of France as the centre of the Catholic faith monasteries pilgrimages crusades construction cathedrals fortified castles fortified towns trade fairs French national culture In contrast, during the early Valois period: bad weather crop failure limited demographic growth high death rate plague subsistence existence education ceased to evolve religious decline clergy ignorant and dissolute sale of indulgences venal clergy

b.

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competition grew in trade art and literature became elaborate but repetitive Flamboyant Gothic Rhtoriqueurs 3. Individuals who made a difference: a. Philip Augustus (1165-1223) restitution of the kingdom administrative reform extended King's authority embellished Paris Louis IX (1214-1270) Saint Louis Joinville Sainte Chapelle [G 290], [MG 58] reformed justice financial reform Cour des Comptes Philip the Fair (1478-1506) centralized French State developed Paris as a capital

b.

c.

Late Middle Ages (Early Valois Kings)1. Features of the period: Hundred Years' War great plagues triumph of centralized monarchy rise of the middle class Some important individuals Christine de Pisan Etienne Marcel* Joan of Arc Jacques Coeur Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)* Cause: Edward III of England claimed throne of France Salic law Battles: Crecy Poiters Agincourt Importance of Joan of Arc to unity

2.

3.

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4.

Plague broke out in 347 Bubonic and Pneumonic Marseilles Avignon population decimated Weak Kings Feudal System based on interdependence of needs Clergy Third Estate (Tiers Etat) Nobility Feudal links largely between members of the nobility Castle Dungeon or Keep Moat Drawbridges Well Kitchen Storage Chapel Open Space Chateau Gaillard [MG 267] Pierrefonds [G 292] Jacques Coeur (1395-1456) entrepreneur Bourges [G 262] Joan of Arc (1412-1431) peasant Lorraine Vaucouleurs Chinon La Ditie de Jeanne d'Arc by Christine de Pisan

5. 6.

2a.

2b.

Chapter 4 Questions 1. Briefly outline the fortunes of the English kings on French soil from William the Conqueror to 1328 with reference to the causes of the lengthy Anglo-French hostilities. The crusading spirit was founded in France. Discuss the extent of French participation in the crusades of this period.

2.

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3.

In the Middle Ages, Louis IX was considered by his contemporaries as the "perfect model of a Christian king". Discuss his character and achievements. Discuss the varying relations of the French rulers with the Papacy in this period with reference to the lasting effects of this special relationship.

4.

Chapter 6 Questions 1. Discuss Joan of Arc's short career with reference to her lasting fame as an icon of France. After growing rapidly, the population of France decreased even more rapidly. Discuss the causes. What factors gave the English armies an advantage throughout much of the Hundred Years War? How did Charles V and Charles VII finally meet the challenge? Discuss administrative changes in the central government in this period and their lasting effects.

2.

3.

4.

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Lecture 4 French Life and Institutions in the Middle Ages1. 2. Importance of the Christian Church Monasticism Monks and nuns governed by the Rule Plain-chant Elements of the Monastery [MG 268] cloi