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Taken from Burke County High School. GHSGT ELA Cram Session. Types of Literature. The two main types of literature on this test are prose and poetry . Prose : consists of a story written in sentences and paragraphs that come from the author’s own imagination. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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GHSGT ELA Cram Session

GHSGT ELA Cram SessionTaken from Burke County High School1Types of LiteratureProse: consists of a story written in sentences and paragraphs that come from the authors own imagination.Poetry is set up in groups of lines called stanzas which have a certain rhythm or beat as you read them. Poetry also contains vivid images in very compact language.The two main types of literature on this test are prose and poetry.2Prose3Literary Elements in FictionCHARACTERA person(s), animal, or natural force appearing in a literary work.PROTAGONISTThe main character or hero of a short story.ANTAGONISTA rival or opponent of the hero.4Basic Story Elements SettingWhen and where a story takes placePoint of ViewThe vantage point from which the story is told the relationship of the narrator to the story.ConflictThe struggle between different forces in a storyPlotThe sequence of events in a story that leads to the resolution5Plot DevelopmentExposition

Resolution

Rising Action

Climax

Falling Action

Narrative Hook/Conflict Introduced

6Point of View (POV)First-person is told by a character who uses the first-person pronoun I.Third-person (Limited or Omniscient) is the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as he and she to refer to the characters.

LIMITED: this perspective is distinct from the omniscient mode in that the reader experiences the story through the senses and thoughts of just one character.OMNISCIENT: this perspective is told from the point of view of a storyteller who plays no part in the story but knows all the facts, including the characters' thoughts.7ConflictThe struggle between different forces in a story.Internal conflict is a mental or emotional struggle that occurs within a character(Man vs. Himself)External conflict is a struggle that occurs between a character and outside forces, which could be another character or the environment.(Man vs. Man, Society, Nature, etc)8IRONYVerbal irony is when a speaker says one thing but means another, or when a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect. An example of this is sarcasm.Dramatic irony is when words and actions possess a significance that the listener or audience understands, but the speaker or character does not.Situational irony is when the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect . . . what you expect to happen does not come to pass.

9Writers TONETone is a reflection of a writers or speakers attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader. For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.10Flashback & ForeshadowingFlashback is action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character.Foreshadowing is theuse of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.11THEMETheme is the general idea or insight about life that a writer wishes to expresssometimes referred to a life lesson. All of the elements of literary terms contribute to theme. A simple theme can often be stated in a single sentence. 12PoetryPoetry consists of imagery, rhythm and rhyme, and figures of speech.13Types of PoetryLYRIC:An emotional writing focusing on thought andemotion - can consist of a song-like quality. Subdivisions include elegy, ode and sonnet. Lyric poetry does not attempt to tell a story.

14Types of Lyric Poetry 15Types of PoetryNARRATIVEA poem which tells a story. Includes the subdivision epic, a long story which tells of the heroic ideals of a particular society, and ballad, which generally tell of an event of interest such as a crime. Ballads were originally intended to be sung while dancing.16Narrative PoetryEpicsEpics are long, complicated story-poems. They tell of extraordinary deeds by supernatural heroes and villains.

BalladsBallads are part of the oral tradition and tella story through song. Their subjects can be heroic, satirical, romantic, or political. They focus on the actions and dialogue of a storynot the characters.

17Types of PoetryDRAMATICAny drama written in verse which is meant to be spoken, usually to tell a story or portray a situation. The majority of dramatic poetry is written in blank verse. 18Imagery, Rhythm & RhymeImagery is words or phrases that recreate an experience of a feeling. It usually appeals to one or more of the five sensessight, sound, smell, taste, or touch.Rhythm is a pattern of sound you hear as the poetry is spoken or read. Rhyme refers to the repetition of sounds or words within lines (internal rhyme) or at the end of lines (end rhyme).19Iambic PentamenterThe most common rhythm in English poetry.Consists of a line ten syllables long that is accented on every second beat.20Poetry that Doesnt RhymeBlank verse is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Whereas, free verse (sometimes referred to free form) is not written in iambic pentameter. 21Types of StanzasCouplet=a two line stanzaTriplet=a three line stanzaQuatrain=a four line stanzaQuintet=a five line stanzaSestet=a six line stanzaSeptet=a seven line stanzaOctave=an eight line stanza22Figures of SpeechFigures of Speech are images that depart from standard wording to achieve a specialmeaning of effect. 23Poetry SoundsAssonance is the repetition of vowel-sounds within non-rhyming words.Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds within words.Alliteration is the repetition of same sounds at the start of words.

There is an example of all three of these terms in one line of the poem, The Raven, written by Edgar Allan Poe:And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtainAssonance is the repetition of the ur sound in "purple" and "curtain.Consonance is the repetition of the s sound within "uncertain" and "rustling.Alliteration is the repetition of the s sound at the start of "silken" and "sad.24HyperboleHyperbole is exaggeration or overstatement.

Example:I'm so hungry I could eat a horse.He's as big as a house.

25Simile and MetaphorSimile is the comparison of two unlike things using like or as.Example:He eats like a pig. Vines like golden prisons.

Metaphor is the comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as as in a simile. Example:He is a pig.

26Onomatopoeia & PersonificationOnomatopoeia is a word that imitates the sound it represents.

Example:splash, wow, gush, kerplunk

Personification is giving human characteristics to something non-human.

Example:smiling moon

27OxymoronOxymoron is a combination of contradictory or opposite words.

Examples: pretty ugly jumbo shrimplegally drunk

28ParadoxParadox is a statement that at first appears false but in reality is true.

Example:Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all. 29American LiteratureUnderstanding the Literary Periods30Native American LiteratureNative American (30,000BC-1730AD):Characteristicsfocus on the common origin of all things, tribal traditions and rituals, respect for all nature. Types of literaturemostly oral, some written, consisting of ceremonial songs and prayers, historical narratives, and poems.

31The Colonial PeriodPuritan/Colonial (1620-1730): Characteristicsfocus on predestination, plainness in all things. Types of literaturesermons, diaries, journals, narratives, and poetry; fiction or drama was forbidden.

32The Revolutionary PeriodRevolutionary (1750-1800): Characteristicshigh regard for reasoning and scientific observation; strong belief in human progress; freedom from restrictive laws and government; moderation and self-control in all things; stress on elegant, ornate style of writing. Types of literaturepolitical writings, almanacs, speeches, essays, and some poetry.

33The Romantic PeriodRomantic (1800-1840): Characteristicshigh regard for inner feelings and emotions; focus on the individual; reverence for the imagination; use of language of the common people. Types of literaturepoetry, novels, short stories, sketches, and folklore.34The Transcendentalist PeriodTranscendentalism & Anti-Transcendentalism (1840-1860): Characteristics(T) reverence for nature; happiness comes from individualism and self-reliance; (AT) critical of optimistic views; human nature a mixture of good and evil. Types of literatureessays, novels, short stories, and poetry.35Realism & NaturalismRealism & Naturalism (1855-1918): Characteristics(R) expression of life as it is actually lived; factual description of ordinary characters and events; regionalism or local color; focus on dialect, customs, and characters of a particular region; (N) heredity, environment, and economics determine ones destiny; nature as a brutal force; influence of scientific method. Types of literaturestories, novels, poetry, travel books, songs, and spirituals.36The Modern PeriodModern Age (1918-present): Characteristicsopposition to dehumanizing trends in modern life; short stories with a more open form that stress mood and character rather than plot; loss of idealism due to war; experimental forms of poetry--free verse, imagism, and confessional poetry; rise in African-American heritage, culture, and concerns.

37Reading ComprehensionLiteral & Inferential Understanding; Writers Purpose & Pattern 38Literal UnderstandingLiteral understanding refers to information that is directly stated in a passage. A main idea is the basic topic of a passage. It