historical background for reading to kill a mockingbird

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Historical Background for Reading To Kill a Mockingbird. English II Unit 3 2012.2013. Civil War Ends. Union (the North) Victory in 1865 gave 4 million slaves freedom. Reconstruction Period 1865 - 1877. A time for rebuilding after the Civil War 13 th Amendment – freed slaves - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Historical Background for Reading To Kill a Mockingbird

English IIUnit 3 2012.2013Historical Background for ReadingTo Kill a MockingbirdUnion (the North) Victory in 1865 gave 4 million slaves freedomCivil War Ends

A time for rebuilding after the Civil War13th Amendment freed slaves14th Amendment citizenship15th Amendment right to voteCivil Rights Act, 1875 equal rightsReconstruction Period1865 - 1877

Early KKK founded by veterans of the Confederate Army

Purpose to resist Reconstruction

Used violent methods

President Ulysses S. Grant destroyed KKK with the Civil Rights Act of 1875

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)1866

1915 William Joseph Simmons founded 2nd KKKThey preached racism, anti-Catholicism, nativism, and anti-Semitism.They took part in lynchings and other violent crimes.

Challenges came when legislatures in the south passed restrictive black codes to control the labor and behavior of former slavesWhen Reconstruction ended, their rights began to dwindle. Jim Crow Laws1877

Louisiana passed a law requiring blacks to ride in separate rail cars. Homer Plessy, a Louisiana carpenter and 7/8 caucasian, was arrested after sitting in a car for whites.Judge ruled against Plessy. Supreme Court upheld the ruling (1896) and led the way for racial segregation.

Plessy v. Ferguson1890

Southern states passed laws that restricted African Americans access to schools, restaurants, hospitals, and public places.

Southern SegregationAfter Plessy v. Ferguson

Ruled that separate schools were valid even if comparable schools for blacks were not availableCumming v. County Board of Education1899

Signs were posted at entrances and exits, water fountains, waiting rooms, and restrooms.Whites Only and Colored

Law passed requiring separate public parks

Georgia 1905

Created 10:00P.M. curfew for blacksMobile, Alabama1909

Blacks and whites were restricted from working together in the same room of textile factoriesSouth Carolina1915

The Great Depression, 1930 - 1939

October 1929 The stock market crashed causing $30 billion in stock values to disappearMarch 1930 Over 32 million people unemployedFebruary 1931 Food riots break out in parts of U.S.December 1931 New Yorks Bank of the U.S. collapsesApril 1932 Over 750,000 New Yorkers on city relief, 160,000 on the waiting listNovember 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected presidentApril 1933 Civilian Conservation Corp. (CCC), a work program for men 17 27 is established

The Great Depression TimelineLasted 1930 19399,000 banks went out of business9 million savings accounts wiped out86,000 businesses failed Wages decreased by an average of 60%Unemployment rate went from 9% to 25%Whites called for blacks to be fired from any jobs as long as there were whites out of work.Racial violence becomes more common.Birth rate fellFamilies fell apartWives and children forced to help families surviveWomen found their status enhanced by their new roles.Minorities last hired and first fired

The Great Depression OverviewPublished in 1960Called a classic American masterpieceThe novel won Pulitzer Prize in 1961Adapted into an Oscar winning film in 1962Set in the 1930s Deep South Fictional setting: Maycomb County, AlabamaHarper Lee was born in Monroeville, Alabama (possible setting)

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

November 2007 - Lee was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush. In his remarks, Bush stated, "One reason To Kill a Mockingbird succeeded is the wise and kind heart of the author, which comes through on every page... To Kill a Mockingbird has influenced the character of our country for the better. It's been a gift to the entire world. As a model of good writing and humane sensibility, this book will be read and studied forever."