to kill a mockingbird pre reading historical background pp

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Created by Cladrenne BlouinTO KILL A MOCKINGBIRDHistorical ContextCreated by Cladrenne BlouinTHE GREAT DEPRESSION & THE DUST BOWLTHE GREAT DEPRESSION 7le Creat Depression (also known as tle Creat Blump) was a dramatic, worldwide economic downturn beginning in some countries as early as 1928. 7le beginning of tle Creat Depression in tle United Btates is associated witl tle stock market crasl on October 29, 1929, known as Black 7uesday tle end is associated witl tle onset of tle war economy of World War II, beginning around 1939.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_great_depressionTHE DUST BOWL 7le Dust Bowl, or tle "dirty tlirties", was a period of lorrible dust storms causing ma|or ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1935 (in some areas until 1940) caused by severe drouglt coupled witl decades of extensive farming witlout crop rotation or otler teclniques to prevent erosion. It was a mostly man-made disaster caused wlen virgin top soil of tle Creat Plains was exposed to deep plowing, killing tle natural grasses - tle grasses normally kept tle soil in place and moisture trapped, even during periods of drouglt and ligl winds.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_bowlTHE DUST BOWL However, during tle drouglt of tle 1930s, witl tle grasses destroyed, tle soil dried, turned to dust, and blew away eastwards and soutlwards in large dark clouds. At times tle clouds blackened tle sky, reacling all tle way to East Coast cities like New York and Waslington D.C., witl mucl of tle soil deposited in tle Atlantic Ocean. 7le Dust Bowl consisted of 100 million acres, centered on tle panlandles of 7exas, Oklaloma, New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dust_bowlHOOVERVILLES A Hooverville was tle popular name for a slantytown 7lese settlements were often formed in unpleasant neiglborloods or desolate areas and consisted of dozens or lundreds of slacks and tents tlat were temporary residences of tlose left unemployed and lomeless by tle Depression. People slept in anytling from open piano crates to tle ground. Most people, lowever, resorted to building tleir residences out of boxwood, cardboard, and any scraps of metal tley could find. Bome individuals even lived in water mains. Most of tlese unemployed residents of tle Hoovervilles begged for food from tlose wlo lad lousing during tlis era.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_the_United_StatesHooverville in Seattle Original caption: 7/16/1934-Hooverville, a section of Seattle. Image: Bettmann/CORBISDate Photographed: July 16, 1934 Location Information:Seattle, Washington, USADepression Homeless Stand in LineThe homeless and unemployed of the Great Depression wait in line seeking shelter in New York.Image: Bettmann/CORBISDate Photographed: 1930 Location Information: New York, New York, USA Sharecropper's Wife and Family Wife and children of a sharecropper. Boone County, Arkansas, 1935.Image: CORBISPhotographer: Ben Shahn Date Photographed: 1935 Location Information: Boone County, Arkansas, USA Family of Coal MinerFamily of an unemployed coal miner. Pursglove, on Scott's Run, West Virginia, September 1938.Image: CORBISPhotographer: Marion Post Wolcott Date Photographed: September 1938 Location Information: Pursglove, on Scott's run, West Virginia, USAMan in Chicago Shantytown A man reads a newspaper in front of his shack at Chicago shantytown during the Great Depression. The shantytown's site became the grounds for the 1933 World's Fair. Illinois, USA.Image: CORBISDate Photographed:May 1, 1930 Location Information:Chicago, Illinois, USADust StormA farm about to be enveloped by a dust storm during the great Dust Bowl of the 1930s.Image: CORBISDate Photographed: ca. 1930s Family Packed In Car, On Way To The West Original caption: The automobile was often the only hope for the future to many families fleeing from the Dust Bowl in the Southwest during the depression years of the 1930's. Many of these families left their homes in Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, etc., for a better life in California. Here migrant cotton field worker and family on the way to the West (OK, AZ, and CA were often their itinerary). Photograph, early 1930's.Image: Bettmann/CORBISImage: Bettmann/CORBISDate Photographed:ca. 1938Location Information: Dalhart, Texas, USADust Bowl Farm in TexasOriginal caption: 1938-Dalhart, TX-Picture shows the dust bowl; an abandoned farm house in Texas.Boy in Dust BowlA young boy covers his nose and mouth against brown sand in the Dust Bowl.Image: Bettmann/CORBISDate Photographed: ca. 1930s Location Information: USA Migrant Mother by Dorothea LangeA poverty-stricken migrant mother with three young children gazes off into the distance. This photograph, commissioned by the FSA, came to symbolize the Great Depression for many Americans.Image: Bettmann/CORBISPhotographer: Dorothea Lange Date Photographed: 1936 Location Information: Nipomo, California, USA Protesters Carrying American FlagsOriginal caption: Columbus, Ohio: Carrying American flags, several hundreds of persons on relief were pictured on the outskirts of Columbus prior to their march on the state capitol. The hunger marchers claim that they have no money or food and that such conditions have prevailed for over a week. They blamed politics for their plight and they demanded an audience with C.C. Stillman, Ohio Federal Relief Director who was recently appointed by the Federal Relief Administrator Harry Hopkins.Image: Bettmann/CORBISDate Photographed: May 15, 1935 Location Information: Columbus, Ohio, USADust Storm in Texas PanhandleImage: CORBISDate Photographed: 1935 Location Information: Texas, USAFarmer in the Dust Bowl A farmer in Kansas during the Great Dust Bowl of the 1930s attempts to work formerly fertile land buried in dust.Image: CORBISDate Photographed: September 1939 Location Information: Kansas, USA Created by Cladrenne BlouinJIM CROWCreated by Cladrenne BlouinTHE ORIGIN OF JIM CROWMINSTREL SHOWS in tle UB tley began in tle 1830s, witl working class wlite men dressing up as plantation slaves. 7lese men imitated black musical and dance forms, combining savage parody of black Americans witl genuine fondness for African American cultural forms. Wlite performers would blacken tleir faces witl burnt cork or greasepaint, dress in outlandisl costumes, and tlen perform songs and skits tlat mocked African Americans. Before tle Civil War, black men could not appear in minstrel slows--custom prolibited it. But tlere are several instances of black men putting on minstrel makeup and appearing as wlite men imitating black men. Later, in tle twentietl century, several of tle most famous minstrels were actually black men wlo wore makeup--tle most famous being Bert Williams, wlo performed in blackface into tle 1920s.http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/jackson/minstrel/minstrel.html7lese tlree stock claracters were among several tlat reappeared in minstrel slows tlrouglout tle nineteentl century. "jim Crow" was tle stereotypical carefree slave, "Mr. 7ambo" a |oyous musician, and "Zip Coon" a free black attempting to "put on airs" or rise above lis station. 7le parody in minstrel slows was often savage. http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/jackson/minstrel/minstrel.htmlCreated by Cladrenne BlouinBEFORE THE JIM CROW LAWSBEFORE THE JIM CROW LAWS by 1900, tle term was generally identified witl tlose racist laws and actions tlat deprived African Americans of tleir civil riglts by defining blacks as inferior to wlites, as members of a caste of subordinate people. 7le emergence of segregation in tle Boutl actually began immediately after tle Civil War wlen tle formerly enslaved people acted quickly to establisl tleir own clurcles and sclools separate from wlites. At tle same time, most soutlern states tried to limit tle economic and plysical freedom of tle formerly enslaved by adopting laws known as Black Codes.http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/overview.htmBEFORE THE JIM CROW LAWS 7lese early legal attempts at wlite-imposed segregation and discrimination were slort-lived. During tle period of Congressional Reconstruction, wlicl lasted from 1855 to 1875, tle federal government declared illegal all sucl acts of legal discrimination against African Americans. tle passage of tle )ourteenth and )LIteenthAmendments, along witl tle two Civil Riglts Acts of T866 and T875 and tle various LnIorcement Acts of tle early 1870s, curtailed tle ability of soutlern wlites to formally deprive blacks of tleir civil riglts.http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/overview.htmBEFORE THE JIM CROW LAWS African Americans were able to make great progress in building tleir own institutions, passing civil riglts laws, and electing officials to public office. In response to tlese aclievements, soutlern wlites launcled a vicious, illegal war against soutlern blacks and tleir wlite Republican allies.http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/overview.htmBEFORE THE JIM CROW LAWS In most places, wlites carried out tlis war in tle late 1850s and early 1870s under tle cover of secret organizations sucl as tle .u .lux .lan. 7lousands of African Americans were killed, brutalized, and terrorized in tlese bloody years. 7le federal government attempted to stop tle bloodsled by sending in troops and lolding investigations, but its efforts were far too limited.http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/overview.htmCreated by Cladrenne BlouinTHE BEGINNING OF THE JIM CROW LAWSBEGINNING OF THE JIM CROW LAWS In 1877 tle federal government essentially abandoned all efforts at protecting tle civil riglts of soutlern blacks. It was not long before a stepped-up reign of wlite terror erupted in tle Boutl. 7le decade of tle 1880s was claracterized by mob lynclings, a vicious system of convict prison farms and clain gangs, tle lorribly debilitating debt peonage of slarecropping, tle imposition of a legal color line in race relations, and a variety of law