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  • How Preservice Teachers Use Learner Knowledge for Planning and In-the-Moment

    Decisions During Guided Reading

    March 20, 2018

    Allison Davis, Dr. Robin Griffith, Dr. Michelle Bauml

    John V. Roach Honors College

  • Outline

    ▰ Background ▰ Research Questions ▰ Basics ▰ Research Process: Participants, methods, data sources ▰ Findings ▰ Why it Matters ▰ Limitations & Future Research ▰ Questions

  • Project Background

    ▰ Who à Allison Davis, Dr. Griffith, Dr. Bauml

    ▰ What à Departmental Honors Thesis

    ▰ Where à TCU College of Education

    ▰ When à November 2016 to present

    ▰ Why à Desire to research a literacy-related topic

  • Research Questions

    We utilized qualitative case study methodology to answer:

    How, during guided reading lessons, do preservice teachers (PSTs) use knowledge of the learner to make:

    1. Planning decisions?

    2. In-the-moment (ITM) teaching decisions?

  • The Basics

  • Who are PSTs?

    ▰ Preservice teachers

    ▰ Teachers-in-training enrolled in an undergraduate certification program

    ▰ Practicing teachers: field and classroom

    Image Source: Allison Davis

    How, during guided reading lessons, do PSTs use knowledge of the learner to make: 1) Planning decisions? 2) ITM teaching decisions?

  • What is Guided Reading?

    ▰ Small group instructional context

    ▰ Teacher supports each reader’s development of systems of strategic actions for processing new texts at increasingly challenging levels of difficulty” (Fountas & Pinnell, 2017, p. 12).

    ▰ Readers: Word solving, building meaning, and developing fluency & expression

    ▰ Tailored instruction: Strengths and needs of individual students → fertile ground for teaching decisions.

    ▰ Knowledge of learner is key Image Source: Fountas and Pinnell. http://www.fountasandpinnell.com/guidedreading/

    How, during guided reading lessons, do PSTs use knowledge of the learner to make: 1) Planning decisions? 2) ITM teaching decisions?

  • What is knowledge of the learner?

    ▰ Specific information about students: § Reading abilities § Reading behaviors § Reading level § Personality § Interests § Behavior

    Image Source: http://www.ncfamily.org/school-choice/

    How, during guided reading lessons, do PSTs use knowledge of the learner to make: 1) Planning decisions? 2) ITM teaching decisions?

  • What is teacher decision making?

    ▰ Teaching is decision making (Shavelson, 1973)

    ▰ “Any teaching act is a result of a decision, whether conscious or unconscious” (p. 18).

    ▰ Teaching decisions may occur in two key contexts

    How, during guided reading lessons, do PSTs use knowledge of the learner to make: 1) Planning decisions? 2) ITM teaching decisions?

  • Types of Teaching Decisions

    Planning ▻ Prior to the lesson

    In-the-Moment (ITM) ▻ During the lesson ▻ Unplanned

    Image Source: https://www.irishtimes.com/life-and- style/abroad/working-abroad/teaching-abroad-how-and-where-to- find-a-job-1.2933071

    Image Source: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/972444 7/Autumn-Statement-how-a-5000-pay-rise-could-mean-a- 2000-tax-bill-on-your-pension.html

  • Research Process

  • Participants

    ▰ Twelve PSTs ▰ Purposively selected (Creswell, 2009) from 61 PSTs seeking early childhood

    certification

    ▰ Enrolled in Dr. Griffith’s required Reading Methods course (Spring 2016)

    ▰ Taught Kindergarten guided reading lessons

    ▰ Four weeks

    ▰ Local elementary school

    ▰ Completed lesson plans and reflections à Guided Reading Projects

  • Data Sources

    ▰ Guided Reading Project→ comprised of four assignments

    ▰ Specific portions analyzed that pertained to planning and ITM decisions

    ▰ 12-13 written artifacts analyzed for each case

  • Sample Prompts

    Planning:

    1. What level is this text?

    2. Why did you select this particular book?

    3. Carefully consider the characteristics that make this text easy/hard and explain how these characteristics match the strengths/needs of the readers.

    In-the-Moment:

    1. What “in-the-moment” teaching decisions did you make?

    2. Why did you make them?

    3. What sources of teacher knowledge were you drawing upon to make those decisions?

    4. Were they effective and how do you know?

  • Coding Process

    ▰ 4 phases: ▰ 1) Examples of knowledge of the learner noted by PSTs

    ▰ 2) Planning and ITM decisions

    ▰ 3) What aspect of knowledge of the learner did PSTs use to make each decision?

    ▰ 4) What element of the guided reading lesson did the decision pertain to?

  • Phase 1

    ▰ Examined what PSTs noticed and learned about their Kindergarten students à knowledge of the learner

    ▰ Each aspect of knowledge of the learner was coded

    ▰ PSTs noted their learners’ abilities related to: ▰ Concepts about print ▰ Comprehension ▰ Monitoring and/or self-correcting ▰ Cross-checking ▰ Word-solving ▰ Fluency ▰ Expression ▰ Reading level

  • Phase 2

    ▰ PSTs’ teaching decisions related to knowledge of the learnerà coded as either “planning” or “ITM”

    ▰ 206 coded decisions directly related to knowledge of the learner ▰ Planning: 71% (147 decisions)

    ▰ ITM: 29% (59 decisions)

  • Phase 3

    ▰ What aspect of knowledge of the learner did PSTs use to make each decision?

    Planning: § Student interests § Student personality § Student reading level § Student needs § Student strengths § Student reading goals

    ITM: § Student personality § Student needs § Student strengths § Student reading goals § Student behaviors (classroom management) § Student reading behaviors displayed (watching student

    read) § Student comprehension levels displayed

  • Phase 4

    ▰ What element of the guided reading lesson was each decision was related to?

    ITM:

    § Pacing/sequencing of lesson § Book introduction § Teaching points § Word solving § Student involvement § Comprehension building § Comprehension assessing § Reinforcement/praising

    Planning:

    § Text selection § Pacing/sequencing of lesson § Book introduction § Teaching points § Word solving § Student involvement

  • Key Findings

  • Decision Types

    100% of planning decisions 100% of ITM decisions

  • Decision Types

    100% of planning decisions 100% of ITM decisions

  • Why it Matters

    ▰ PSTs: ▰ Drew upon multiple facets of the learner to plan and teach guided reading lessons

    ▰ Demonstrated appreciation for:

    ▰ Knowing the learner à Basis of all decisions ▰ Purposeful text selection ▰ Supporting word solving ▰ Responsive teaching ▰ Reading as a process à Scaffolding ▰ Reflection ▰ Comprehension à Purpose for reading

  • Why it Matters

    ▰ PSTs à Capable of making developmentally appropriate teaching decisions when armed with the powerful knowledge of their learners

    ▰ Importance of teacher preparation programs

    ▰ Planning→ PSTs are able to use knowledge of learner in tandem with an understanding of text selection components

    ▰ ITM→ “Teaching must be responsive to the learner” (Fountas & Pinnell, 2017, p. 367)

  • Limitations

    ▰ Guided Reading Project: ▰ Four weeks ▰ Only Kindergarten students

    ▰ Unclear à How PSTs would make decisions in other contexts and over time

    ▰ Self-reported teaching decisions; reflective rather real-time

  • Future Research

    ▰ Examine the effectiveness of PST decisions ▰ Student outcomes of those decisions

    ▰ PST decisions in more diverse contexts: ▰ Grade levels ▰ Ages ▰ Subjects

  • Thank you very much!

  • Questions?

  • References

    Bauml & Griffith (2008, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017). Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H., & Phelps, G. (2008). Content knowledge for teaching: What makes it special? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 389-407. Barbour, N. (1986). Teachers can make decisions. Childhood Education, 62(5), 322-324. Boocock, C., McNaughton, S., & Parr, J.M. (1998). The early development of a self-extending system in writing. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 41-58. Borko, H., & Putnam, R. T. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 673-798). New York, NY: Macmillan. Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 195-207. Clark, S. K., & Byrnes, D. (2015). What millennial preservice teachers want to learn in their training. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 36(4), 379-395. doi:10.1080/10901027.2015.1100148 Clay, M. M. (1982). Observing young readers: Selected papers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Clay, M.M. (1991). Becoming literate: The construction of inn

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