igc2 elem 6 (chemical and biological health hazard control)

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  • WEEK 2 ELEMENT 6Chemical & Biological Health Hazards and ControlPage: 150

  • Classification of Occupational Health HazardsPhysical:Machinery, Electricity, Heat, NoiseChemical:Acids, Alkalis, AsbestosBiological:HIV Virus, Legionella, Bacteria Ergonomic:Posture problems, FatiguePsychological: Stress, Shock, AnxietyPage: 151

  • Classification of Health Hazards

    Health HazardWorkplace health hazardHealth effect of exposurePhysicalNoiseNoise induced hearing lossChemicalAsbestosAsbestosisBiologicalRats urineLeptospirosis / Weils DiseasseErgonomicRepetative tasksWork related upper limb disorders

  • Biological Hazards

    Biological hazards can be bacteria or viruses

    Diseases caused by biological agents include:

    Legionnaires disease a type of pneumonia or lung infection Hepatitis blood borne viral infections Weils disease fatal infection transmitted urine from infected rats Anthrax disease caused by the bacteria found in animal hides Rabies Rabies is a virus transmitted bite from a wild infected animal

    Page: 152

  • Biological Hazards Control MeasuresCleaning / DisinfectingWater treatment programmesVermin control A pest animal prohibited, controlledProcedures for handling, containment & disposalPersonal hygieneImmunisation to build resistance to specific infectionsHealth surveillance strategies and methods to detect and assess systematically the adverse effects of work on the health of workers.Specific trainingPPEPage: 152

  • PHYSICAL FORMS OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCESGases (Co2)Vapour (toluene)Mists and aerosols (deodorant)Smoke (coal burning)Fumes (welding)Dusts (floor mill dust)Liquids (chemicals)Solids (Lead ingot)Page: 152

  • Hazardous Substances Symbols (1)Irritant: Inflammation on contact with skin, eyes or mucous membrane may cause inflammation e.g. adhesives and detergents

    Corrosive: Destruction of living tissue at point of contact (skin) strong acids or alkalis i.e. H2 SO4, Caustic, ammoniaPage: 153

  • Hazardous Substances Symbols (2)Harmful: Substances which if swallowed, inhaled or penetrate the skin may cause damage to health e.g. Trichloroethylene

    Very Toxic: Poisonous substances which in very low quantities may cause death, acute chronic damage to health e.g. cyanidePage: 153

  • Hazardous Substances Symbols (3)Toxic:Poisonous substances which in low quantities may cause death, acute chronic damage to health e.g. Lead, Mercury, Arsenic

    Carcinogenic:Substances which cause disorders in cell growth that may lead to cancer or increase its incidence e.g. Benzene Page: 153

  • Hazardous Substances Symbols (4) Mutagenic: Substances which induce hereditable genetic defects or increase their incidence

    Teratogenic: Toxic for reproduction. Substances which produce or increase the incidence of non heritable effects in progeny.Page: 153

  • TOXICOLOGYDefinition: The study of how different materials will affect the human body

    The factors to be considered are:Route of EntryToxicityDose & ResponsePage: 154

  • TOXICOLOGY - Routes of EntryInhalation



    Injection (Direct Entry)Page: 154

  • TOXICOLOGY - Routes of EntryInhalationmost important route of entrysubstances can directly attack lung tissueresponsible for 90% of all cases of industrial poisoningIngestionvia the mouthoften accidentalpoor hygieneAbsorptionthrough the skinsolvents may penetrate unbroken skin

    Injectionwhen skin is damagedpuncture of the skincontact with liquid or gas under pressurePage: 154

  • Toxicity, Dose & ResponseToxicity: The potential of a substance to cause harm to living things

    Dose: How much of a substance you are exposed to and how long the exposure lasts

    Response: How the body reacts to the exposurePage: 154

  • Factors Affecting ResponseBody WeightAgeSkin TypeSexDietHealthPage: 154

  • Ill-health DefinitionsAcute :Is an immediate or rapidly produced adverse effect, following a single or short-term exposure to a hazardous substance, usually with a rapid or immediate response which is normally reversible. Chronic:Adverse health effect resulting from prolonged, repeated exposure to a hazardous substance the response being gradual (often unrecognised for a long time) may get worse with no further exposure and is often irreversible.Page: 155

  • Toxic EffectsAcute:

    HeadachesDizzinessNauseaInflammationEye irritationUnconsciousnessDeath


    CancersDeathLocalSystemicSensitisationPage: 155

  • DermatitisRemoval of natural oils from skin which causes reddening, soreness, cracking and bleeding of exposed skin. Usually occurs to arms and hands Causative Agents:

    Solvents, Detergents,Mineral oils, Diesel fuel, Cement, Dusts, etc.Page: 156

  • Measures to Prevent DermatitisSubstitute/change processClean working conditions & Properly planned safe systemsCareful attention to skin problemsPrompt attention to cuts etc.Use of PPEBarrier creamsPre-employment screeningInformation, instruction and training

    Page: 156

  • Target OrgansA Target Organ is defined as:An organ within the human body on which a specific toxic material exerts its effects.

    LungsAsbestos, Coal dustBrainLead, MercuryPage: 156

  • Target OrgansBrain leadKidneys leptospirosisNasal passages organic solventsLungs asbestos, chlorine, carbon dioxide, ammonia, isocyanates, silica, organic solvents, legionellaLiver hepatitisNerves organic solvents, leadBlood carbon monoxideSkin - detergents, isocyanates, mineral oils, acids, alkalis, organic solventsEyes ammoniaPage: 156

  • Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL)The maximum concentration of an airborne substance averaged over a reference period to which an employee may be exposed by inhalation Threshold Limit Values (TLV) USAIndicative Limit Values (ILV) EuropeWorkplace Exposure Limits (WEL) UK

    High risk substancesOther hazardous substancesPage: 156

  • Action If OEL ExceededStop the processRemove employees from areaMake area safeInvestigate causeAssess existing controlsMonitor proceduresCheck workers healthRecord incidentPage: 157

  • AsbestosTypesWhite (Chrysotile)Brown (Amosite)Blue (Crocidolite)DiseasesAsbestosisMesotheliomaLung cancerBlue and brown asbestos are more hazardous than whitePage: 158

  • Asbestos UsesProtective ClothingInsulation boardsPipework LaggingCement BoardsGaskets, FiltersBrake Linings PlasterworkSprayed for InsulationWorkers at risk:Maintenance, & Demolition workersPage: 158

  • Other Agents (1)Ammonia: A colourless gas with a pungent odourIrritation to the eyes and upper respiratory tractUsed in printing and fertilisersChlorine: A greenish gas with a pungent odourIrritant to respiratory tract, abdominal pain, nausea (sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach)Used as a disinfectant in drinking water and swimming pool waterPage: 159

  • Other Agents (2)Carbon Dioxide: A colourless, odourless gasIncreases the rate of respiration, unconsciousnessProduced in fermentation, Fire protectionCarbon Monoxide: A colourless, odourless and tasteless gasHeadaches, drowsiness, asphyxiation Incomplete combustion in boiler, vehicle exhaustsPage: 159

  • Other Agents (3)Isocyanates: Volatile organic compoundsIrritation of skin and mucous membrane, asthmaSpray painting vehicles, manufacture of footwearLead: A heavy, soft and easily worked metalNausea, headaches, nervous system, death Batteries, Plumbing and roofing workPage: 159

  • Other Agents (4)Silica: Found in sand, sandstone, graniteSilicosisBuilding industryOrganic solvents: Dissolve other substancesIrritant to the eyes, skin, throat and lungs, headaches, nausea, dizziness Used as a base in paint manufacturing, PVC, etcPage: 159

  • Other Agents (5)Leptospirosis or Weils: Caused by bacteria from rats urineAttacks kidneys and liverFound in rivers, sewers, ditches, canalsLegionella: An airborne bacterium found in water sources e.g. cooling towers, stagnant waterBreathing difficulties, pneumonia Hepatitis: Hazardous substances, virusesDiseases of the liver, high temperature, jaundiceHealth workers and workers handling bodily fluidsPage: 160

  • AIRBORNE DUSTRespirable dust:Airborne dust of such a size about 0.5 microns that it is able to enter the lungs during normal breathing

    Respiratory diseases:Asbestosis (chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs)Silicosis (occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust)Asthma chronic the airways occasionally constrictBronchitis (an acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs)Lung CancerFarmers lung (a disease of dairy farmers who handle contaminated hay) Page: 161

  • Body Defences against dustThe nasal hairsCoughing and sneezingEyes wateringThe ciliary escalatorPage: 161

  • Indicators of Dust ProblemsVisible signsComplaints by employeesMonitoringHealth problemsEquipment problemsBlocked filtersPage: 161

  • Assessing levels of dustVisual examinationSampling for dustPersonal samplersFixed samplersFilters attached to pumpsSample for a fixed timeDust lampsDirect reading instrumentsDust accumulationPage: 161

  • Control Measures to Reduce Exposure to DustEliminate at sourceSubstitute with pelletsChange processUse liquid processEnclose the complete processVentilationControl by suppressionHousekeepingMaintenancePage: 161

  • BODYS DEFENCESThe bodys defences to hazardous substances are: Respiratory (Inhalation)Gastrointestinal (Ingestion)Skin (Absorption)Cellular mechanism (Injection)Page: 163

  • Respiratory (Inhalation) DefencesNOSE : Wetn