Ilearn - Dslr Photography

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Presentation for photography learning course.


<ul><li><p>DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHYAnd How to Use Your Camera</p></li><li><p>PHOTOGRAPHY IS THE MANIPULATION AND CAPTURING OF LIGHT</p></li><li><p>THREE THINGS NECESSARY TO MAKE A PHOTOGRAPH</p></li><li><p>THREE THINGS NECESSARY TO MAKE A PHOTOGRAPH</p><p>1. Light2. A mechanism to focus the light (lens)3. Light sensitive material (film, digital light </p><p>sensor)</p></li><li><p>AS LONG AS THOSE 3 THINGS ARE PRESENT, JUST </p><p>ABOUT ANYTHING CAN BECOME A CAMERA</p></li><li><p>TAKING PICTURES</p></li><li><p>WHAT MAKES A SHOT GOOD?</p></li><li><p>WHAT MAKES A SHOT GOOD?</p><p>Many factors make a photograph good or bad but much of it centers around achieving proper exposure</p></li><li><p>WHAT IS PROPER EXPOSURE?</p><p>Proper exposure is when you can maintain as much detail as possible throughout the dark areas (shadows) and bright areas (highlights) of the image. The range from light to dark in photographs is referred to as Dynamic Range.</p></li><li><p>PROPER EXPOSURE IS ACHIEVED THROUGH A BALANCE OF 3 THINGS</p><p>1. Duration of the exposure (shutter speed)2. Amount of light entering the lens </p><p>(aperture)3. Sensitivity of light sensitive material (film </p><p>speed, ISO)</p></li><li><p>MANUAL MODE</p></li><li><p>MANUAL MODECanon Nikon</p><p>This is your cameras fully manual setting, all controls are set by the user.</p></li><li><p>SHUTTER SPEED</p></li><li><p>SHUTTER SPEED</p><p> How long the cameras shutter is open, exposing the film/sensor to light (how long the camera sees the picture)</p><p> Measured in seconds, range is usually 30sec to 1/8000sec</p></li><li><p>(EXTRA INFO) SHUTTER SPEED</p><p> Standard shutter speeds increase by a factor of 2, known as a stop</p><p> Most modern cameras are capable of setting to third stops</p><p>Standard Stops 1/1000s 1/500s 1/250s 1/125s 1/60s 1/30s 1/15s 1/8s 1/4s 1/2s 1s 2s B</p></li><li><p>FAST OR SLOW?</p><p>1/160 second 1/8 second</p><p>Faster Speeds will freeze motion whereas slower speeds will show blur</p></li><li><p>FAST</p><p>1/3200 second</p></li><li><p>SLOW</p><p>1 second</p></li><li><p>VERY SLOW</p><p>13 seconds</p></li><li><p>SETTING SHUTTER SPEED</p></li><li><p>SETTING SHUTTER SPEED</p><p>In Manual (M) mode, turn the dial to adjust shutter speed</p></li><li><p>SETTING SHUTTER SPEED 32001/3200 second 1251/125 second 301/30 second 050.5 seconds 55.0 seconds BBulb: manually controlled exposure</p></li><li><p>IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER</p></li><li><p>IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER</p><p> Slower than 1/60 sec (up to 1/30 if you are a statue) will be tough to keep sharp hand held (requires a tripod)</p><p> Darker environments (indoors, night) require slower speeds and vice versa, bright environments (outdoors, sunlight) require faster</p><p> Slower speeds will tend to overexpose (bright photos), faster speeds will tend to underexpose (dark photos)</p></li><li><p>APERTURE</p></li><li><p>APERTURE</p><p> A system of blades inside the lens which open or close to determine how much light can enter the lens</p><p> Used to set the depth of field for an image Measured in f-stop</p></li><li><p>APERTURE BLADES</p></li><li><p>SMALL MEANS BIG?</p><p>f 1.4 f 2.8 f 4 f 5.6 f 8 f 11 f 16 f 22 f 32</p><p>More Light / Shallow DOF Less Light / Wide DOF</p></li><li><p>SMALL MEANS BIG!</p><p>f 1/1.4 f 1/2.8 f 1/4 f 1/5.6 f 1/8 f 1/11 f 1/16 f 1/22 f 1/32</p><p>Aperture is a ratio of focal length to opening (aperture) size so thinking of aperture values as fraction denominators helps to understand why the numbers are counter-intuitive</p><p>More Light / Shallow DOF Less Light / Wide DOF</p></li><li><p>WIDE OR SMALL?</p><p>f/1.8 f/9.0</p></li><li><p>SETTING F-STOP ON CANON</p><p>In Manual (M) mode, turn the dial while depressing the Av (aperture value) button to adjust f-stop</p></li><li><p>SETTING F-STOP ON NIKON</p><p>In Manual (M) mode, turn the dial while depressing the exposure compensation/aperture </p><p>value button to adjust f-stop</p></li><li><p>IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER</p><p> As you zoom in and out, the available maximum and minimum aperture values will shift (i.e. F/3.5-5.6)</p><p> Think back to the idea of aperture values being a ratio, i.e. focal length changes while aperture size remains constant thus aperture value ratio shifts</p></li><li><p>IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER</p><p> Shallow depth of field is good for isolating subjects</p><p> F/8 is generally a good aperture to use to keep most of your frame in focus</p><p> Depth of field will vary depending on how close your subjects are to the camera</p><p> Background blur is referred to as bokeh taken from the Japanese word for blur</p></li><li><p>ISO</p></li><li><p>ISO / FILM SPEED</p><p> Speed at which light sensitive material (film/digital light sensor) reacts to light</p><p> Sensitivity Standard for measurement is ISO</p></li><li><p>ISO / FILM SPEED Typical range is about 100-1600 1 stop is a factor of 2 Modern cameras can be adjusted to </p><p>approximately third stops and will go as high as ISO 102,400</p><p> In film photography, ISO is fixed for the duration of 1 roll of film (about 24 exposures)</p></li><li><p>IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER</p><p> Higher ISO sensitivity means the film is more likely to burn when exposed to light creating film grain (these principles carry over to digital photography as well)</p><p> ISO is a typical feature-creep item for digital cameras and above 3,200 is generally useless</p></li><li><p>MUCH LIKE THIS</p></li><li><p>HIGH VS LOW ISO</p><p>ISO 100 ISO 12,800</p></li><li><p>WHEN TO USE LOW ISO Plenty of light available Long exposure Wide aperture Need the sharpest image possible Shooting landscapes, slow/static subjects, </p><p>outdoors in natural light</p></li><li><p>WHEN TO USE HIGHER ISO</p><p> Less light available Faster exposures Smaller aperture Shooting moving subjects/sports, indoors, at </p><p>night</p></li><li><p>WHEN TO USE 12,800</p><p> Never</p></li><li><p>SETTING ISO ON CANON</p><p>Push the ISO button, use knob or arrow pad to select an ISO, then press set</p><p>TXi T3</p></li><li><p>SETTING ISO ON CANON</p><p>Push the info button then navigate to ISO on the right side, select an ISO, then push OK</p><p>InnovationSpace</p><p>InnovationSpaceNIKON</p></li><li><p>THEORY OF RECIPROCITY As mentioned before, ideal exposure </p><p>happens when shutter speed, aperture, and ISO are all balanced</p><p> If one element is adjusted, at the other two must compensate</p><p> Good practice is to set one element to achieve a desired effect, then balance the other two to compensate while maintaining good exposure and dynamic range</p></li><li><p>GREAT, BUT</p></li><li><p>HOW DO I KNOW EXACTLY WHERE TO SET THEM?</p></li><li><p>EASY, USE THE METERING!</p></li><li><p>LIGHT METERING</p><p>An indicator similar to this is found in your viewfinder, and on the information screen. As you make adjustments the indicator will move left and right indicating underexposure (-) and overexposure (+). Each number indicates one stop</p></li><li><p>LIGHT METERING</p><p>Try to keep the marker as close to the center as possible. This indicates what the camera sees as proper exposure. Often the camera isnt fully accurate (why youre making settings manually) so use it as an aid for experimentation.</p></li><li><p>AUTOFOCUSING</p></li><li><p>AUTOFOCUSING</p><p>Inside your viewfinder you will see a series of boxes resembling these.</p></li><li><p>AUTOFOCUSING</p><p>When the shutter button is depressed halfway, one or more of these points will light up signifying that is what the camera is using to adjust its focus. It is important that they light up on your subject.</p></li><li><p>AUTOFOCUSING</p><p>Often times, the camera will not select the correct points, causing incorrect focus.</p></li><li><p>AUTOFOCUSING</p><p>Luckily it is very easy to override the camera and manually select a point to focus on.</p></li><li><p>CANON AUTOFOCUS SINGLE POINT SELECTION</p><p>In any mode, push the manual point selection button, then turn the dial or use the arrow buttons to select a point. If all points are illuminated, the camera is set to auto point selection.</p></li><li><p>NIKON AUTOFOCUS SINGLE POINT SELECTION</p><p>Push the info button then navigate to autofocus mode on the right side, select Single Point AF, then push OK. Exit quick settings by pushing the info button again. You can now select a point while focusing by using the arrow buttons.</p></li><li><p>BE SURE NOT TO FORGET TO CHANGE BACK TO AUTOMATIC </p><p>POINT SELECTION, OR READJUST THE FOCUS POINT </p><p>BEFORE YOUR NEXT SHOT</p></li><li><p>IT CAN BE EASY TO FORGET</p></li><li><p>CAMERA MODES</p></li><li><p>MANUAL MODECanon Nikon</p><p>This is your cameras fully manual setting, all controls are set by the user.</p></li><li><p>APERTURE-PRIORITY AUTOCanon Nikon</p><p>Aperture priority (Aperture value) allows the user to select an aperture value while the rest remains automatic.</p></li><li><p>SHUTTER-PRIORITY AUTOCanon Nikon</p><p>Shutter priority (Time value) allows the user to select a shutter speed while the rest remains automatic.</p></li><li><p>PROGRAM MODECanon Nikon</p><p>In program mode, the camera is fully automatic, but any function can be overridden on the fly. Program mode will not use flash unless it is enabled. Use this if automatic is necessary.</p></li><li><p>FULLY AUTOMATICCanon Nikon</p><p>Do not use this mode. It is fully automatic and allows the user no manual controls, not even to set focus points. It will almost always try to use the flash in darker environments.</p></li><li><p>ON-CAMERA FLASHWith Flash Without Flash</p><p>The on camera flash is small and provides a very directed harsh light. Never use the on-camera flash as it will almost never produce acceptable results.</p></li><li><p>FINAL THOUGHTS</p></li><li><p>FINAL THOUGHTSOnce you have a basic understanding of photographic principles, the best way to learn how to work with your camera is to simply play with it and experiment. The worst you can do is take a bad picture. Begin trying different compositions of the same subjects and work with different effects. Use the rule of thirds, play with lighting. Keep your cameras manual in your camera bag! It is the best way to answer questions quickly. Most importantly, have fun! Doesnt that apply to most things?</p></li></ul>