Instrumentation Handbook

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<p>Technical Handbook</p> <p>Worldwide Level and Flow SolutionsSM</p> <p>This Technical Handbook is the result of a combined effort by the Engineering, Sales, and Marketing Departments.</p> <p>Table of ContentsConversions Metric Values................................................................................1 Metric Prefixes..............................................................................1 Temperature .................................................................................2 Flow Rate .....................................................................................3 Miscellaneous...............................................................................5 Equivalents Liquid Measures and Weights....................................................12 Kinematic Viscosity ....................................................................12 Absolute Viscosity ......................................................................13 Electrical Units............................................................................13 Degrees API and Degrees Baum.............................................14 Kinematic and Saybolt Viscosity ................................................15 Pressure and Head ....................................................................16 Properties Density and Specific Gravity of Selected Liquids ......................17 Density and Specific Gravity of Selected Gases .......................18 Density and Specific Gravity of Saturated Water.......................19 Density of Superheated Steam and Compressed Water ...........20 Specific Gravity of Petroleum Products .....................................21 Density of Air ..............................................................................22 Speed of Sound .........................................................................22 Dielectric Constants of Liquids...................................................23 Dielectric Constants of Solids ....................................................29 Viscosity of Gases and Vapors ..................................................30 Viscosity of Water and Steam ....................................................31 Viscosity of Various Liquids........................................................31 Viscosity of Petroleum Products ................................................32 Pipe Data Dimensions of Blind Flanges......................................................33 Flange Ratings by Class ............................................................35 Cast Iron Pipe ............................................................................38 Steel Pipe ...................................................................................39</p> <p>All reasonable efforts have been made to accurately compile the information contained in this handbook. However, no warranty is made with regard to any such information, and Magnetrol cannot assume responsibility for any possible errors or any direct or indirect result of the use of such information.</p> <p>Conversions: Metric ValuesThe table below provides a fast and easy means of conversion from one metric notation to another. The value labeled Unit represents a basic unit of measurement, such as meter, gram, ohm, erg, etc. First, locate the original value in the left-hand column. Follow the row horizontally to the vertical column headed by the prefix of the desired value. The arrow and figure at this intersection represent the direction in which the decimal point should be moved and the number of places to move it. Example: Convert 0.15 kilowatts to watts. Starting at the Kilo- box in the left-hand column, move horizontally to the column headed by Unit (since watt is a basic unit of measurement), and read 3 . Thus 0.15 kilowatts is the equivalent of 150 watts. Example: Convert 4,500 kilohertz to megahertz, read in the box horizontal to Kilo- and under Mega- the notation 3, which means a shift of the decimal point three places to the left. Thus, 4,500 kilohertz is the equivalent of 4.5 megahertz.</p> <p>Original Value TeraGigaMegaMyriaKiloHectoDekaUnit DeciCentiMilliMicroNanoPico-</p> <p>Desired Value Tera3 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 21 24 Giga3 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 18 21 Mega6 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 15 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 13 16 Myria8 5 2 Kilo9 6 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 12 15 Hecto- Deka10 11 7 8 4 5 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 8 11 14 1 2 3 4 7 10 13 Unit 12 9 6 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 6 9 12 Deci13 10 7 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 5 8 11 Centi14 11 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 4 7 10 Milli15 12 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 6 9 Micro18 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 6 Nano21 18 15 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 3 3 Pico24 21 18 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 6 3</p> <p>Conversions: Metric Prefixesatto. . femto pico . nano. micro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a . . . . . . . one-quintillionth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. . . . . . . . one-quadrillionth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p . . . . . . . one-trillionth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . one-billionth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one-millionth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one-thousandth one-hundredth . one-tenth . . . . . one . . . . . . . . . ten . . . . . . . . . . one one one one one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 ..............................1018 000 000 000 001 ......................................1015 000 000 001 ..............................................1012 000 001.......................................................109 001...............................................................106</p> <p>milli. . . . . . . . . . . . . m. centi . . . . . . . . . . . . c . deci . . . . . . . . . . . . d . uni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deka . . . . . . . . . . . . da hecto kilo . . mega giga . tera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h. k . M. G. T.</p> <p>0.001 .......................................................................103 0.01 .........................................................................102 0.1 ...........................................................................101 1.0 ...........................................................................100 10.0 ...........................................................................101 100.0 ...........................................................................102 000.0 ...........................................................................103 000.0 ...........................................................................106 000.0 ...........................................................................109 000.0 ...........................................................................1012</p> <p>hundred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thousand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 million . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 billion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 000 trillion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 000 000</p> <p>1</p> <p>Conversions: TemperatureLocate temperature in middle column. If in degrees Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in right hand column; if in degrees Fahrenheit, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.</p> <p>459.4 to 0 C 273.1 268 262 257 251 246 240 234 229 223 218 212 207 201 196 190 184 179 173 169 168 162 157 151 146 140 134 129 123 118 112 107 101 96 90 84 79 73 68 62 57 51 46 40 34 C F 459.7 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 273.1 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 F C 17.2 16.7 16.1 15.6 15.0 14.4 13.9 13.3 12.8 12.2 11.7 11.1 10.6 10.0 9.4 8.9 8.3 7.8 7.2 6.7 6.1 5.6 5.0 4.4 3.9 3.3 2.8 2.2 1.7 1.1</p> <p>1 to 60 C F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 62 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 F 33.8 35.6 37.4 39.2 41.0 42.8 44.6 46.4 48.2 50.0 51.8 53.6 55.4 57.2 59.0 60.8 62.6 64.4 66.2 68.0 69.8 71.6 73.4 75.2 77.0 78.8 80.6 82.4 84.2 86.0 87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2 95.0 96.8 98.6 100.4 102.2 104.0 105.8 107.6 109.4 111.2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2 122.0 123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0 132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0 C 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.0 25.6 26.1 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4 35.0 35.6 36.1 36.7 37.2 37.8 43 49 54 60 66 71 77 82 88 92 99 100 104 110 116 121 127 132 138 143</p> <p>61 to 290 C F 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 F 141.8 143.6 145.4 147.2 149.0 150.8 152.6 154.4 156.2 158.0 159.8 161.6 163.4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172.4 174.2 176.0 177.8 179.6 181.4 183.2 185.0 186.8 188.6 190.4 192.2 194.0 195.8 197.6 199.4 201.2 203.0 204.8 206.6 208.4 210.2 212.0 230 248 266 284 302 320 338 356 374 392 410 413.6 428 446 464 482 500 518 536 554 C 149 154 160 166 171 177 182 188 193 199 204 210 216 221 227 232 238 243 249 254 260 266 271 277 282 288 293 299 304 310 316 321 327 332 338 343 349 354 360 366 371 377 382 388 393 399 404 410 416 421 427 432 438 443 449 454 460 466 471 477</p> <p>300 to 890 C F 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 F 572 590 608 626 644 662 680 698 716 734 752 770 788 806 824 842 860 878 896 914 932 940 968 986 1004 1022 1040 1058 1076 1094 1112 1130 1148 1166 1184 1202 1220 1238 1256 1274 1292 1310 1328 1346 1364 1382 1400 1418 1436 1454 1472 1490 1508 1526 1544 1562 1580 1598 1616 1634 C</p> <p>900 to 3000 C F 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1020 1040 1060 1080 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 2850 2900 2950 3000 F 1652 1670 1688 1706 1724 1742 1760 1778 1796 1814 1832 1868 1904 1940 1976 2012 2048 2084 2120 2156 2192 2228 2264 2300 2336 2372 2462 2552 2642 2732 2822 2912 3002 3092 3182 3272 3362 3452 3542 3632 3722 3812 3902 3992 4082 4172 4262 4352 4442 4532 4622 4712 4802 4892 4982 5072 5162 5252 5342 5432</p> <p>482 488 493 499 504 510 516 521 527 532 538 549 560 571 582 593 604 616 627 638 649 660 671 682 693 704 732 760 788 816 843 871 899 927 954 982 1010 1038 1066 1093 1121 1149 1177 1204 1232 1260 1288 1316 1343 1371 1399 1427 1454 1482 1510 1538 1566 1593 1621 1649</p> <p>459.7 454 436 418 400 382 364 346 328 310 292 274 256 238 220 202 184 166 148 130 112 94 76 58 40 22 4 14 32</p> <p> 0.6 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6</p> <p> 29 23 17.8</p> <p> 20 10 0</p> <p>2</p> <p>Conversions: Flow RateVelocity in Feet per Second. Find the volume flow rate (gallons per minute) in the left hand column, read the velocity flow rate (feet per second) for a specific line size in the right hand column. (Based on Schedule 40 pipe.)Line Size Line Size GPM 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.25 0.50 0.75 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,500 1" 0.011 0.019 0.037 0.093 0.186 0.279 0.371 0.743 1.114 1.485 1.857 2.228 2.971 3.713 5.570 7.427 9.283 1 1/4" 0.011 0.021 0.054 0.107 0.161 0.214 0.428 0.643 0.857 1.071 1.285 1.714 2.142 3.213 4.285 5.356 6.427 7.498 8.569 9.640 10.712 Line Size Line Size 1 1/2" 0.008 0.016 0.039 0.079 0.118 0.158 0.315 0.473 0.630 0.788 0.945 1.261 1.576 2.364 3.151 3.939 4.727 5.515 6.303 7.091 7.878 9.454 11.030 2" 0.010 0.024 0.048 0.072 0.095 0.191 0.286 0.382 0.477 0.573 0.764 0.955 1.432 1.910 2.387 2.865 3.342 3.820 4.297 4.775 5.730 6.685 7.640 9.550 Line Size Line Size 2 1/2" 0.007 0.017 0.034 .0050 0.067 0.134 0.201 0.268 0.335 0.402 0.537 0.671 1.006 1.341 1.677 2.012 2.347 2.683 3.018 3.353 4.024 4.695 5.365 6.707 8.384 10.060 11.737 Line Size 3" 0.011 0.022 0.033 0.043 0.087 0.130 0.174 0.217 0.261 0.347 0.434 0.651 0.869 1.086 1.303 1.520 1.737 1.954 2.172 2.606 3.040 3.474 4.343 5.429 6.515 7.600 8.686 9.772 10.858 11.944 Line Size 4" 0.013 0.019 0.025 0.050 0.076 0.101 0.126 0.151 0.202 0.252 0.378 0.504 0.630 0.756 0.882 1.008 1.134 1.260 1.512 1.764 2.016 2.520 3.150 3.781 4.411 5.041 5.671 6.301 6.931 7.561 8.191 8.821 9.451 10.081 10.712 5" 0.012 0.016 0.032 0.048 0.064 0.080 0.096 0.128 0.160 0.240 0.321 0.401 0.481 0.561 0.641 0.721 0.801 0.962 1.122 1.282 1.603 2.004 2.404 2.805 3.206 3.606 4.007 4.408 4.809 5.209 5.610 6.011 6.412 6.812 7.213 7.614 8.014 8.816 9.617 10.419 6" 0.011 0.022 0.033 0.044 0.056 0.067 0.089 0.111 0.167 0.222 0.278 0.333 0.389 0.444 0.500 0.555 0.666 0.777 0.889 1.111 1.388 1.666 1.944 2.221 2.499 2.777 3.054 3.332 3.610 3.887 4.165 4.443 4.720 4.998 5.276 5.553 6.109 6.664 7.219 7.775 8.330 8.885 9.441 9.996 10.551 8" 0.013 0.019 0.026 0.032 0.038 0.051 0.064 0.096 0.128 0.160 0.192 0.224 0.257 0.289 0.321 0.385 0.449 0.513 0.641 0.802 0.962 1.122 1.283 1.443 1.603 1.764 1.924 2.084 2.245 2.405 2.565 2.726 2.886 3.046 3.207 3.527 3.848 4.169 4.489 4.810 5.131 5.451 5.772 6.093 6.413 7.055 7.696 8.337 8.979 9.620 10.261 10" 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.033 0.041 0.061 0.081 0.102 .0122 0.142 0.163 0.183 0.203 0.244 0.285 0.326 0.407 0.509 0.610 0.712 0.814 0.916 1.017 1.119 1.221 1.323 1.424 1.526 1.628 1.730 1.831 1.933 2.035 2.238 2.442 2.645 2.849 3.052 3.256 3.459 3.662 3.866 4.069 4.476 4.883 5.290 5.697 6.104 6.511 7.325 8.139 10.174 Line Size Line Size Line Size</p> <p>3</p> <p>Conversions: Flow Rate (cont.)Velocity in Meters per Second Find the volume flow rate (cubic meters per hour) in the left hand column, read the velocity flow rate (meters per second) for a specific line size in the right hand column. (Based on Schedule 40 pipe.)Line Size m3/hr 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Line Size 1" 0.010 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 0.125 0.149 0.174 0.199 0.249 0.374 0.498 0.747 0.997...</p>

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