ivory tower to concrete jungle: will lcds light the way?
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DESCRIPTIONIvory Tower to concrete jungle: Will LCDs light the way?. Philip C Candy National Director of ETD NHS Connecting for Health firstname.lastname@example.org. A cautionary tale about the promise. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Ivory Tower to concrete jungle: Will LCDs light the way?Philip C CandyNational Director of ETDNHS Connecting for Healthphilip.email@example.com
A cautionary tale about the promise...Far away in the heavenly abode of the great god Indra, there is a wonderful net which has been hung by some cunning artificer in such a manner that it stretches out indefinitely in all directions. In accordance with the extravagant tastes of deities, the artificer has hung a single glittering jewel at the net's every node, and since the net itself is infinite in dimension, the jewels are infinite in number. There hang the jewels, glittering like stars of the first magnitude, a wonderful sight to behold. If we now arbitrarily select one of these jewels for inspection and look closely at it, we will discover that in its polished surface there are reflected all the other jewels in the net, infinite in number. Not only that, but each of the jewels reflected in this one jewel is also reflecting all the other jewels, so that the process of reflection is infinite. Cook, F H (1977). The Avatamsaka Sutra. In Hua-yen Buddhism: The jewel net of Indra. University Park and London: Pennsylvania State University
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Overview of presentationBackgroundSome assumptions about learning and about elearningSome pedagogical challenges and their elearning solutionsConclusion
Background to the title of the presentationIn 1991, Candy and Crebert undertook a study of the learning skills required of the new graduate. In their paper 'Ivory tower to concrete jungle: The difficult transition from the academy to the workplace as learning environments' (Journal of Higher Education, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 570-92), they identified a number of radical discontinuities between the workplace and the academy as learning environments. These were then explored in terms of the skills required to navigate the shift.
Ivory Tower to Concrete JungleThis was followed a few years later by a major study on behalf of the Australian Government into the development of skills for self-directed learning through undergraduate education (Candy, P. C., Crebert, G., & O'Leary, J. (1994). Developing lifelong learners through undergraduate education. (Commissioned Report 28). Canberra: National Board of Employment, Education and Training Australian Government Publishing Service). Has the advent of the World Wide Web changed either the challenge or the way of approaching it?
Looking backwards to move forwards: Implications of fifty years of elearning research and developmentWe need to avoid the narrow pedagogies that are predisposed by available technologies, such as those dictated by currently available VLEs, and instead impose broader and more sophisticated pedagogies that address the necessary relationships between community, communication and cognition. Or, putting this another way, if we want to put the learning into e-learning then we have to treat technology as a mediator of what are, essentially, social learning processes. (Ravenscroft, 2002)
A few starting assumptionsLearning is a conversational act: how can we support various kinds of conversations?Learning is an individual act which may not be caused by teaching and may not coincide with a teaching eventCampus and beyond the campus the challenge (imperative) of supporting lifelong learningElearning is not the same as e-training, e-tutoring or e-mentoring. The focus of elearning should be directly and unambiguously on learning and in particular on self-directed or autonomous learningOur focus should be on solving enduring pedagogical problems: not just e-mimicking (or, worse still, on e-shovelling)
So, what are some of these enduring pedagogical problems?The time- and place-bound nature of most formal educationThe fact that learning involves qualitative changes in meaning not quantitative accretions to a stock of informationDeveloping an anticipatory or futures-oriented frame of referenceUnderstanding whole systems, models and possibilitiesThe artificial divide between the classroom or lecture theatre and real world situations and applications
And their solutionsThe time- and place-bound nature of most formal education: Open learning and distance educationThe fact that learning involves qualitative changes in meaning not quantitative accretions to a stock of information: Constructivist not instructivist - approaches to learning and assessmentDeveloping an anticipatory or futures-oriented frame of reference: Learning for about the future possible, probable and preferable futuresUnderstanding whole systems, models and possibilities: Games, simulations and experiential learningThe artificial divide between the classroom or lecture theatre and real world situations and applications: Learning from real life settings, practitioners and resources
Learning beyond the CampusOpen learning and distance educationConstructivist not instructivist - approaches to learning and assessmentLearning for and about the futureGames, simulations and experiential learningLearning from real life settings, practitioners and resources
Open education and distancelearningThe long tradition of correspondence educationAdvances in open education and distance learningIncreased use of multimedia and eventually of telecommunicationsBut beware of pedagogic trajectories from the past transmission-based approaches
Digital developments in open education and distance learningConvergence of various modalities: words, pictures, video and audio-streamingSynchronous and asynchronous communications with tutors and with other learnersIncreased use of forums, blogs, wikis and other user generated contentAdvances in the sophistication and functionality of Managed Learning EnvironmentsRapid elearning; content authoringLeicesters Media Zoo
Constructivist not instructivist - approaches to learning and assessmentConstructivist approaches how people make sense of their realitiesPersonal constructs and socio-gridsDiaries, journals and reflective essaysTracking learning journeys over timeDrafts, revisions and final versionsConcept maps and schemata
Digital developments in constructivist approaches to learning and assessmentAll of the above plus:Video diariesSoftware that tracks and reflects changes over timeSoftware that allows users to reflect and test their mental models of phenomenaSoftware applications that allow for varying some parameters and testing hypotheses or hunchesSoftware that prompts reflection and internal conversations
Learning about events that havent happened yetIn a broadcast on the BBC in 1932, H G Wells stated:It seems an odd thing to me that though we have thousands and thousands of professors and hundreds of thousands of students of history working upon the records of the past, there is not a single person anywhere who makes a whole-time job of estimating the future consequences of new inventions and new devices. There is not a single Professor of Foresight in the world.
Learning about events that havent happened yet possible, probable and preferable futuresFutures studies are about possibilities, not predictionsNot in Utopia, subterranean Fields, Or some secreted Island, heaven knows where! But in the very world, which is the world Of all of us,-- the place where in the end We find our happiness, or not at all! (William Wordsworth, 1805, The French Revolution as It Appeared to Enthusiasts at Its Commencement)
Learning about events that havent happened yetAs Toffler observed, essentially all education is about the future. Resources include:Artists impressions; paintings and drawingsArt installations; Found objects from the futureImaginative literature; sci-fi; alternative or conjectural historiesWhat if scenarios (e.g., the Mont Fleur Scenarios)Moderated discussionsFilms, videos and mocumentaries
Digital developments in learning about events that havent happened yetAll the above, available instantly and convenientlyOnline forums and summitsBlogs and online discussion forumsWeb-based Open space forumsWebsites devoted to all kinds of futures discussions and tracking projections (e.g., Long Now Foundation)Access to authors, thinkers, dreamersThe availability of radically different views and visions can be a stimulus to forming personal values about desirable futures
Games, simulations and experiential learningFlight and other simulatorsRole-playing and role-takingWar Games; TEWTsModel offices; atelier studios; moot courtsGames and simulations (e.g., Tango Sveiby)Standardised patients and OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations)MicroteachingPractice interviews (clinicians; social workers) in fact any simulation for any career, occupation or job
Digital developments in games, simulations and experiential learningMUDs, MOOs and DungeonsDigital simulations of any environment, context or settingVirtual reality (e.g, Wii; THOTH)Second Life: "Real Learning in a Virtual WorldEilif Trondsen (2006) Virtual Worlds for Learning and Training(see: http://www.sric-bi.com/LoD/summaries/2006-12virtualworlds.shtml)
Improving the real world relevance of formal educationApprenticeships; atelier methods Sites visits, field trips, observational studies Sandwich coursesInternships, placements, practicumsVisiting lecturers, adjunct appointmentsIndustry mentorsResource Based Learning
Digital developments in improving the real world relevance of formal educationThe university's value, we claim, lies in the complex relationship it cr