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  • LINE FOLLOWING OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT

    6/1/2016 Project by -

    Name Pankaj Kumar Enrollment No. 03976802814 Branch ECE-3 College Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology

  • LINE FOLLOWING OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT

    Page 1

    Certification

    This is to certify that this project, the entire design and construction of the

    Line Following and Obstacle avoiding robot was carried out and submitted as a

    true work of Pankaj Kumar of Guru Teg Bahadur Institute of Technology (GTBIT)

    college of Electronic and Communication Engineering (ECE) Branch with enrollment

    number 03976802814 under the supervision of ____________________________.

    _______________________ _______________________

    _______________________ Date

    (Project Supervisor)

    _______________________ _______________________

    _______________________ Date

    (External Supervisor)

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    Acknowledgement

    I can only acknowledge the unquantifiable help God gave me throughout this project

    work, always showing up whenever I got to the end of my line and felt like changing

    the project to a simpler one. Most remarkable was the breakthrough He gave me

    when I was stuck at one C code function for a day!

    I am deeply indebted to my parents and siblings for their constant support

    especially in circumstances where I find it hard to even convince myself that my

    request for help is fair and reasonable. I am equally indebted my very

    understanding, fatherly and enviable project supervisor who is always willing to go

    above and beyond in counselling and supervising me.

    I could not have been able to understand how to go about the vital aspect of the

    project work if not for the supervisory assistance of my friends and colleagues

    (Actually, all aspect of my project work was vital). I must also acknowledge my

    colleagues who over the four years we have been together, in ways they themselves

    do not understand, have been the vital components of my educational and personal

    growth which also greatly rubbed on my successful completion of this project work.

    I greatly appreciate the tripartite support and nourishment I enjoyed from the entire

    family of the Chapel of Faith.

  • LINE FOLLOWING OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT

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    Table of Content

    S.no Content Page no.

    1)

    2)

    3)

    4)

    5)

    i)

    ii)

    6)

    7)

    8)

    9)

    i)

    ii)

    iii)

    iv)

    10)

    11)

    Project Report

    Certification

    Acknowledgement

    Table of Content

    Introduction

    Line Following Robot

    Obstacle Avoiding Robot

    Working

    Requirements

    Labelled Photo

    Some Important electronic Components

    Arduino

    Infrared Sensors

    Ultrasonic Sensors

    Motor Driver

    Code

    References

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    4

    5

    6

    8

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  • LINE FOLLOWING OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT

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    LINE FOLLOWING OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT Introduction:

    Line Following Robot:

    A line following Robot is a robot (usually a vehicle) which follows a distinguished

    colored path (usually a black lined path). It consists of several electronic components

    which makes it follow (usually with tires) a programmed path. The main component of

    such robot is a microcontroller which is the brain of the robot.

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    Obstacle Avoiding Robot:

    An Obstacle Avoiding Robot is a robot (usually a vehicle) which follows a straight

    path but if any obstruction is present/introduced in its path then the robot avoids its

    collision with the obstruction (usually by stopping before the obstruction or by

    changing path). It consists of several electronic components which makes it follow

    (usually with tires) a programmed path and avoid collision. The main component of

    such robot is a microcontroller which is the brain of the robot.

    A Line Following Obstacle Avoiding Robot is a Robot (usually a vehicle) which have

    both the characteristics of Line Following Robot and Obstacle Avoiding Robot i.e., it

    follows a programmed path (usually a black line) and avoids any obstacle on the

    way.

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    Working:

    These robots are pretty cheap and easy to design. Some sensors are used to detect

    the colored line on the path and any obstruction on the path. The robot then

    responds to the sensors reading which is defined by programmer in the

    microcontroller program.

    This robot can follow a thick line (at least of 1 inch) perfectly (even the most complex

    paths consisting of obtuse/acute angle turns and intersection of those black lines.

    The robot starts when the battery is connected but the speed of robot is slow.

    Therefore, another battery is then connected to provide more power to motors and

    hence the robot moves comparatively faster.

    When the two Infrared sensors connected at both sides of robot senses white path

    then the two motors rotate clockwise and the robot moves forward. Similarly, when

    the Infrared sensors senses black path then also the two motors rotate clockwise and

    the robot moves forward. Hence, when the robot senses intersection of black lines

    then it moves straight.

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    When one of the Infrared sensors (say right side) senses a black path while the other

    one (say left one) senses a white path, then the path is turning towards right, hence

    the robot moves right. To make the robot move right, the right motor stays stationary

    and left motor rotates clockwise, hence robot takes right turn.

    When one of the Infrared sensors (say left side) senses a black path while the other

    one (say right one) senses a white path, then the path is turning towards left, hence

    the robot moves left. To make the robot move left, the left motor stays stationary and

    right motor rotates clockwise, hence robot takes right turn.

    To take a sharp right turn, make the left motor rotate clockwise while making the

    right motor rotate anticlockwise.

    To take a sharp left turn, make the right motor rotate clockwise while making the left

    motor rotate anticlockwise.

    When the ultrasonic sensor in front of the robot senses any obstruction (in range of

    20 cm) while moving forward then the motors stops rotating and the robot stops. The

    robot starts moving as soon as the obstruction is removed.

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    Requirements:

    Components Quantity Price (in Rupees)

    Arduino Uno 1 400

    Motor Driver Module 1 75

    Geared Motor 300 RPM 2 65X2=130

    Castor Wheel 1 40

    Jumper Wire Male-Female 20 2X20=40

    Jumper Wire Male-Male 20 2X20=40

    Infrared Sensor Module 2 35X2=70

    Ultrasonic Sensor 1 75

    9 Volt Battery 2 50X2=100

    9 Volt Battery Holder 2 10X2=20

    Tires (attached to motors) 2 20X2=40

    Chassis 1 50

    Double Sided Tape 2 10X2=20

    Scissors 1 0

    14 Requirements Total Price : 1,060 Rupees

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    Labelled Photo:

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    Some Important Electronic Components:

    Arduino:

    Arduino is an open-source prototyping platform based on easy-to-use hardware and

    software. Arduino Boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a

    Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing

    something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the

    microcontroller on the board. To do so you use the Arduino Programming Language (based on

    Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.

    Over the years Arduino has been the brain of thousands of projects, from everyday objects to

    complex scientific instruments. A worldwide community of makers - students, hobbyists, artists,

    programmers, and professionals - has gathered around this open-source platform, their

    contributions have added up to an incredible amount of accessible knowledge that can be of

    great help to novices and experts alike.

    Arduino was born at the Ivrea Interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast prototyping,

    aimed at students without a background in electronics and programming. As soon as it reached a

    wider community, the Arduino board started changing to adapt to new needs and challenges,

    differentiating its offer from simple 8-bit boards to products for IoT applications, wearable, 3D

    printing, and embedded environments. All Arduino boards are completely open-source,

    empowering users to build them independently and eventually adapt them to their particular

  • LINE FOLLOWING OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT

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    needs. The software, too, is open-source, and it is growing through the contributions of users

    worldwide.

    Thanks to its simple and accessible user experience, Arduino has been used i

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