map of medieval europe
Post on 03-Jan-2016
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONGREAT MIGRATION c. 400-550 CE CELTIC c. 500 BCE-1200 CE British Isles & parts of north, western & central Europe VENDEL PERIOD c. 550-800 CE SCANDANAVIA VIKING AGE c. 800-1100 CE SCANDANAVIA CAROLINGIAN PERIOD c. 768-877 CE OTTONIAN PEROD c. 919-1002 CE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
GREAT MIGRATION c. 400-550 CE
CELTIC c. 500 BCE-1200 CEBritish Isles & parts of north, western & central Europe
VENDEL PERIOD c. 550-800 CE SCANDANAVIA
VIKING AGE c. 800-1100 CE SCANDANAVIA
CAROLINGIAN PERIOD c. 768-877 CE
OTTONIAN PEROD c. 919-1002 CE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
LATE ROMANEARLY BYZANTINE
Map of Celtic Britain
CELTIC ARTCeltic, pronounced Kel-tik (from the Greek or Keltoi), is a term that encompasses cultures in the British Isles & parts of north, western & central Europe. Art forms are made in a variety of mediums and materials metalwork, jewelry, illuminated manuscripts, shipbuilding, enameling, wood, leather, ivory, bone, antler, stone and more. Celtic art has been described thusly: Its most outstanding characteristic is its eclecticism and variety, at times borrowing from Greek, Eastern, Roman and Viking art. Some common design elements, motifs and terms are as follows:animal style the use of animals as motifs, usually very decorative and abstract. Often limbs and other body parts are extended into complex interlaced designs, sometimes in combat. Often, the human figure is treated similarly. By contrast, when a naturalistic approach is attempted on either animal or human, it can leave the viewer wondering if the artist had ever witnessed his/her subject.chip carving a technique of cutting metal into faceted surfaces, to reflect light, often in the form of reversed pyramids. True chip carving is rare; pseudo-chip carving, produced by casting, is more usual.filigree very fine wire work, e.g. in the detail showing the dragon in the Tara Brooch. folio the page of a manuscript. A page of vellum has two sides, recto (smooth) & verso (rough, hair side).Hiberno-Saxon or Insular are terms used to describe works of this period made specifically in the British Isles. Hiberno refers to Ireland.horror vacui fear of empty space; the characteristic of filling negative space with decoration.interlacing interwoven linear design, A.K.A. ribbon interlace or over-and-under interlace. niello a black paste (silver sulphide w/ copper) used as inlay.nomads gear small, portable and functional objects of art.penannular the term, meaning an almost complete ring, is used for circular brooches with a break in the hoop. However, the heavy terminals of so-called penannulars were sometimes fused, i.e. the hoop was made as an unbroken circle. Such brooches are referred to as pseudo-penannular.zoomorphic ornament of animal form.
SUTTON HOO - CELTIC
SUTTON HOO - CELTIC
SUTTON HOO+ - CELTIC
14-3 SUTTON HOO - CELTIC
SUTTON HOO+ - CELTIC
SUTTON HOO - CELTIC
14-1 BOOK OF KELLSCELTIC
BOOK OF KELLS -CELTIC
BOOK OF KELLS-CELTIC
Lindisfarne Gospels - CELTIC
VENDEL & VIKING
14-20, 21 Oseberg Ship Burial VIKING
7-26 San Vitale & 14-11 Palace Chapel
OTTONIAN PERIOD c. 919-1002* CE Henry the Fowler (919-36) Otto I (936-73) 1st Holy Roman EmperorOtto II (973-83)Otto III (983-96/996-1002)
14-22, 23 & 24 OTTONIAN
LINKS AND SOURCES
NORSE MYTHOLOGYCELTIC MYTHOLOGYSUTTON HOO SITESUTTON HOO SOCIETYSUTTON HOO LINKSBRITISH MUSEUM (click compass, continue compass, type sutton hoo in search)THE MUSEUM OF NATIONAL ANTIQUITIES (Sweden) OSEBERG SHIP BURIALBackhouse, Janet. The Lindisfarne Gospels. London: Phaidon, 1981.Harris, David.The Art of Calligraphy. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1995.Kleiner, et al. Gardners Art Through The Ages. New York: Harcourt, 2001.Laing, J. & L. Art of the Celts. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1994. Meehan, Bernard. The Book of Kells. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1994. Mutherich & Gaehde. Carolingian Painting. New York: G. Braziller, 1976.Nordenfalk, Carl. Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Painting. New York: G. Braziller, 1977. Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2002.
Suggested Movie: The Vikings, Kirk Douglas, 1958. (available at Blockbuster)
As has been said before, historical periods are often problematic, especially when trying to simplify them (while retaining accuracy) for a survey course. This is especially true of much of Europe during the last 2/3 of the first millennium. Often called the Dark Ages, this time saw the end of the western Roman Empire, the marauding of the Vikings, the Christianizing of western Europe and the arrival of Attila (see below) and his Huns, which in turn intensified the mass migrations of the population of Europe migrating from their homelands Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Franks, Lombards, etc. This last event is known as the GREAT MIGRATION. We will narrow our focus to the periods listed in the slide above with extra material for the Celtic, Vendel and Viking periods. Unfortunately, we will exclude other material, such as Christian Spain and Langobard Italy. We will then look at the Carolingian and Ottonian periods.
Attila, called the Scourge of God (circa 406-53), king of the Huns (circa 433-53). He is called Etzel by the Germans and Ethele by the Hungarians.Little is known of Attilas early life beyond the fact that he was a member of the ruling family of the Huns, a nomadic Asian people who spread from the Caspian steppes in repeated incursions on the Roman Empire. Before Attilas birth the Huns reached the Danube River in raids against the Eastern Roman Empire; by ad 432, they had gained so much power that Attilas uncle, the Hunnish king Roas, or Rugilas, was receiving a large annual tribute from Rome. Attila succeeded his uncle, at first sharing the throne with his brother Bleda, whom he put to death in 445. In 447 he advanced through Illyria and devastated the whole region between the Black and the Mediterranean seas. Those of the conquered who were not destroyed were compelled to serve in his armies. He defeated the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II; Constantinople (present-day stanbul) was saved only because the Hunnish army, primarily a cavalry force, lacked the technique of besieging a great city. Theodosius, however, was compelled to cede a portion of territory south of the Danube River and to pay a tribute and annual subsidy.With great numbers of Ostrogoths, or East Goths, whom he had conquered, in his army, Attila invaded Gaul (451) in alliance with Gaiseric, king of the Vandals. He was met by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and defeated that same year in the great Battle of Chlons, fought near the present-day French city of Troyes; according to all accounts it was one of the most terrible battles of ancient history. The Romans were assisted by the Visigoths, or West Goths, under their king, Theodoric I (reigned 419-51). Historians of the period estimated the losses of the army of Attila at from 200,000 to 300,000 slain, a number now believed greatly exaggerated. Aetius wisely allowed the Huns to retreat, pursuing as far as the Rhine River.Partially recovered from the defeat, Attila in the next year turned his attention to Italy, where he devastated Aquileia, Milan, Padua (Padova), and other cities and advanced upon Rome. Rome was saved from destruction only by the mediation of Pope Leo I, who in a personal interview is said to have impressed the Hunnish king by the majesty of his presence. In 453 Attila prepared once more to invade Italy, but he died before the plan could be carried out.See also Goths; Huns. Further ReadingHow to cite this article: "Attila," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2003 http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Locate the following sites: Ireland, Durrow, Kells, Iona, Lindisfarne, Sutton Hoo, Norway, Oseberg, Sweden, Gotland, Hildesheim, Aachen, Normandy, Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Baltic Sea.Ive created links in several slides, beginning with this one. Try clicking on NORSE MYTHOLOGY above.L) Arthur Rackhams illustration of one of the valkyries, Brunnhilde, mounted on Grane as she rides into Siegfrieds funeral pyre; from his 1910-11 illustrations for Wagners Ring.R) Picture stone found at Tjngvide on the Swedish island of Gotland. Viking Age. This stone is now kept at the Statens Historiska Museet at Navavagen, Sweden. The top scene shows Odin astride his eight-legged horse Sleipnir approaching Valhalla. A female figure perhaps Frigg greets him. The bottom scene depicts a Viking warship.See the inset on page 487 for a brief introduction to the Northern Deities. Note: JRR Tolkien borrowed much from Norse mythology in writing his Lord of the Rings trilogy.
A couple of websites below also may interest you.http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~cherryne/myth.cgi/Introduction.htmlhttp://www.ii.uj.edu.pl/staff/artur/enc/D4.htm
Left) Gummersmark Brooch (looped fibula). Denmark (6th century)Right) Frankish looped fibula. France (6th 7th century)Center) Justinian and two of his attenda