measuring tools

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2. 6/1/2014 2AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 3. ANCIENT MEASURING TOOLS. Measurement tools have a long history, which reaches all the way back to ancient times. Interesting enough, many of these tools have changed very little over the years and are still in use today as part of modern day society. 6/1/2014 3AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 4. 6/1/2014 4AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 5. 6/1/2014 5AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 6. This is a VERNIER CALLIPER. Accuracy of a vernier caliper depends upon the least count of the vernier. It is the smallest division which can be measured measured using vernier. When you measure an object using vernier calipers the resultant reading is the sum of main scale reading plus the vernier scale reading. Hence the accuracy of a vernier calipers mainly depends upon the least count of a vernier scale. 6/1/2014 6AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 7. 6/1/2014 AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 7 8. 6/1/2014 AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 8 A screw pitch gauge also known as a micrometer is a precision instrument. It is used for measuring diameter of circular objects mostly wires, with an accuracy of 0.001cm. It consists of a hollow cylinder mounted on a U frame. The hollow cylinder leads to a ratchet which is meant for fine adjustment. The U frame consists of a flat end known as stud and a screw on the other side. This screw can be moved inside the nut by fitted in the U frame by rotating the hollow cylinder called the thimble. This is called the main scale. 9. 6/1/2014 AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 9 The hollow cylinder or the thimble is graduated into 50 or 100 equal parts. This is called the circular scale. Micrometer screw-gauge is another instrument used for measuring accurately the diameter of a thin wire or the thickness of a sheet of metal. It consists of a U-shaped frame fitted with a screwed spindle which is attached to a thimble The screw has a known pitch such as 0.5 mm. Pitch of the screw is the distance moved by the spindle per revolution. Hence in this case, for one revolution of the screw the spindle moves forward or backward 0.5 mm. This movement of the spindle is shown on an engraved linear millimeter scale on the sleeve. On the thimble there is a circular scale which is divided into 50 or 100 equal parts. When the anvil and spindle end are brought in contact, the edge of the circular scale should be at the zero of the sleeve (linear scale) and the zero of the circular scale should be opposite to the datum line of the sleeve. If the zero is not coinciding with the datum line, there will be a positive or negative zero error as shown in figure above. Zero error in case of screw gauge While taking a reading, the thimble is turned until the wire is held firmly between the anvil and the spindle. The least count of the micrometer screw can be calculated using the formula given below: Least count = 0.01 mm 10. 6/1/2014 AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 10 1) Make sure the instrument is clean and make sure it works( no forced friction between vernier scale and main scale) 2)Check for Zero error( error resulting in the wrong collaboration of the instrument) 3)Check for Parallax error ( error due to wrong positioning of the eye) 11. 6/1/2014 AREEZ IRFAN AND JUNAID KHAN. 11