middle ages early middle ages (400-800 a.d.) feudal ages or central middle ages (800-1050 a.d.) high...
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- Middle Ages Early Middle Ages (400-800 A.D.) Feudal Ages or Central Middle Ages (800-1050 A.D.) High Middle Ages (1050-1300 A.D.) Late Middle Ages or Renaissance (1300-1500 A.D.)
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- Early Middle Ages (400-800 A.D.) Fall of the Roman Empire. Rise of life on the fortified Latifundia. Strong central government vanished. Trade and Economy in Turmoil. Germans struggle to hold on to Roman Civilization. The only thread unifying Europe was Christian Church. Monasticism develops to offer an opportunity to show devotion to the faith. Christians no longer have to be martyrs. Charlemagne rules his empire (France, N. Spain, Germany, N. Italy) 768- 814 A.D. In 800 A.D. he is crowned, Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III, blending German, Roman and Christian cultures.
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- Decline from Roman Empire Decline in civilization takes place in the following areas: Central Authority Trade/Cities Literacy Communication Uniform Code of Law German v. Roman Political Traditions People express loyalty to the Chieftain not the State. The Kingdom is the personal property of the Chieftain. Multiple oral law replaces Universal written law. Germans use trial by ordeal instead of courts who investigate facts and collect evidence to prove guilt. Water, Fire, Combat, Oath Story of Beowulf (Germanic Oral Epic) Reinforces Feudalism Grendal (half man/half beast) attacks civilization. Danish King Rothgar calls for Beowulf. Beowulf defeats Grendal and his mother. 50 years later, Beowulf is King of the Danes in England. When a Dragon attacks, Beowulf needs help and calls Wiglaf. Beowulf, Wiglaf and his knights defeat the Dragon. Kinship, loyalty, caring, shares the wealth.
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- Catholic Church = Quasi Government Under Pope Gregory I (590-604 A.D.) the church assumed some of the powers & duties reserved for government. Until the formation of modern Germany replaced the Holy Roman Empire in 1870, the church was directly involved in politics. 1.Diplomacy = Negotiating Treaties 2.Taxes= Tithes 3.Law = Canon Law 4.Doctrine = Interpret Truth 5.Salvation = Hold the Door 6.Punish = Excommunicate/Interdict 7.Devotion = Monasteries/Missionaries 8.Care = Hospitals 9.Learning = Reading, Knowledge, Skills 10.Defense = Shelter
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- Monasteries Monastic life is formalize with the development of the Benedictine Rule, 529 A.D. at Monte Cassino, Italy. Book of Hours Prayer 8x a day 7hrs. Labor 2hrs. Reading Christians Works 1 or 2 Meals Little Wine/No Red Meat Literate monks maintained and taught advanced skills. Farming Methods Weaving & Carpentry Hospitals Shelter Centers of Learning
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- A Medieval Monks Day
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- Christianity in the West St. Patrick (399-461 A.D.)converted the Irish Venerable Bede (731 A.D.)- English scholars Valuable Contributions to Society: Taught better farming methods Taught skills such as weaving and carpentry Established Hospitals Provided protected shelter for travellers Centers of learning Pope Gregory I "the Great" (590-604 A.D.) secular power
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- Frankish Kings Carolingian Dynasty Clovis (Merovingian - circa 481 A.D.) Unites Franks and defeats Romans and Visigoths. Marries a Christian (Clothilde) & converts with 3000 soldiers in 496 A.D. Pepin II (687-714 A.D.) Makes the office of Mayor of the Palace hereditary. Charles Martel (717-741 A.D.) Defeats the Moors at Tours in 732 A.D. and defends Christianity. Pepin III The Short (751-768 A.D.) As MoP wins a civil war amongst Franks preserving unity. Crowned King by the Grace of God by Pope Stephen II in 754 A.D. Defeats Lombards in N. Italy defending the Papacy. Grants the Pope the land between Rome and Ravenna. Gift of Pepin Charlemagne (768-814 A.D.) Louis the Pious (814-840 A.D.) Treaty of Verdun, 843 A.D. divides the Empire Charles the Bald - France Lothair Louis the German - Germany
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- CharlemagneCharlemagne (768-814 A.D.) Charles, by the Grace of God, king & rector of the Kingdom of the Franks, devoted defender of the Holy Church & its aider in all things. Conquers his Empire (N.Spain, France, Germany, & N. Italy). Builds a church in his capital city Aix-la-Chapelle. (Aachen) Defeats the Lombards again confirming and expanding the Papal States Rescues Pope Leo III during the Iconoclast Controversy. Calls a synod of Bishops & proclaims the Pope theologically infallible. Crowned Emperor of the Romans in St. Peters Bascilica on Christmas day in 800 A.D. Attracted to Greco-Roman culture, he invites the finest scholars to teach at his palace schools. He has monasteries open their doors to train clergy and calls for monasteries to continue to improve libraries. Charlemagne is seen as the bridge builder between Germanic, Roman and Christian civilization. Unfortunately, all of this growth is not accompanied by economic revival, therefore his empire quickly fades after his death.
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- Charlemagnes empire
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- Feudal Ages (800-1050A.D.) Charlemagnes empire is divided by the Treaty of Verdun, 843 A.D. Western Rome is under military duress with invasions by the (Vikings- north, Muslims-south and Magyars-east) Invasion pressures and economic turmoil create the need for: The political system of Feudalism The economic system of Manorialism As invasion pressures subside farming advances and peace help to increase population. Traveling trade fairs begin to establish themselves permanently at strong geographical positions. Kings benefit from economic revival through taxation of trade. Charters are sold to trade towns freeing them from feudal obligations.
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- Feudalism Feudalism was a political system based on the granting (investing) of land (fief) to a noble (vassal) in return for military loyalty (fealty) and services (homage).
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- Feudal Responsibilities A Vassals had the following responsibilities to his lord: 1. They must provide 40 days of military service a year. 2. They must raise a ransom to free lord if captured. 3. They must provide lodging for lord when traveling through fief. 4. They must give a gift when lords son is knighted/daughter married. 5. They must sit on lords court to collected taxes and judge disputes. 6. Religious vassals often provided learned services. Only Nobles were granted fiefs and therefore had the responsibilities listed above. Nobles did not ever farm land! Only serfs & peasants farmed the land.
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- Nobles are Warriors Nobles trained to become knights: Page (age 6-13) Trained by the lady of the manor in education, chess, music & courtly manners. Young nobles are also trained in hawking and hunting. Squire (age 13-18) Trained by the Captain of the Guard in ability to ride a warhorse without hands, use various weapons & improving strength to operate with potentially 100 pounds of plate armor. Knight (adulthood) Political, Social and Religious ceremony. A knight would spend a day of fasting and remain in vigil the night before his military skills test with his sword and shield upon the altar. A priest would bless these weapons with the responsibility to defend the just and right.
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- Chivalry In order to raise the warrior noble to a level of respect above barbarianism and might makes right, an ideal code of conduct was established. 1.Loyalty to Lord. 2.Fight Bravely. 3.Treat other knights with respect. 4.Defend the Church. 5.Protect women, children and the weak. The Church also tried to relieve the burdens of militarism during the period by limiting the time and place that nobles were allowed to fight. Peace (place) of God. Fighting prohibited on Church land. Truce (time) of God. Fighting prohibited on weekends & holy days. Knights fought mock battles in Tournaments as tests of skill for honors and to keep in shape.
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- Coat of Arms/Heraldry Project (16x20--35 Points) Advanced Military Technology: Mounted Knights, Armor, Castles In armor with helmets, how did you know who was who? Colors & Symbols Organized and recorded colors and symbols was Heraldry. A particular nobles Heraldric symbol was his Coat-of-Arms. Coat-of-Arms Identification Inspire Fear, Awe, Respect Reflects a persons skills, devotions, heritage, loyalties The symbol often times included a motto or creed.
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- Xaviers Coats-of-Arms The Jesuits at Xavier have a coat-of- arms. Castle = Jesuit symbol, it is the family castle of the founder of the Jesuits, St. Ignatius Loyola Colors = Maroon and Blue Symbol = a Knight, the Jesuits are the Knights of Christ, doing missionary work around the world to spread the message of the gospels and to win converts. 1847 = Important year for Xavier High School. We are proudly, a New York tradition. Motto = Jesuits and those who following their traditions do everything For The Greater Glory of God Ad Majorem Dei Glorium
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- Manorialism Manorialism, the self-sufficient economic system based on barter and labor of the serfs, was brought on by the dangerousness of trading and the military pressures on medieval Europe. Social classes on the manor: Nobles trained for war and dispensed justice. Clergy trained in literacy and helped one to earn salvation. Serfs trained in artisan skills and provided the food need. Things found on a manor: 1.Castle 2.Church 3.Serfs village 4.Water Source 5.Forest 6.Farmland 7.Grazi
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