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MILK PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM !"# $%!" &!%"%#%’()" !%’’%*(%" ADVISORS Major Advisor: Dr. A.M. Thaker Minor Advisor: Dr. C.G. Joshi Subject Advisor: Dr. D.N. Rank

Author: vunga

Post on 30-Jan-2018




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    Major Advisor: Dr. A.M. ThakerMinor Advisor: Dr. C.G. JoshiSubject Advisor: Dr. D.N. Rank

  • History

    Studies more than 100 years, Experimental methods not ever

    adequate to verify preliminary hypothesis.

    New analytical methods - benefit to milk protein knowledge

    Electrophoresis, Chromatography etc

  • Protein fraction % Casein -casein s1-casein s2-casein -casein

    2.7 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.3

    Whey proteins -lactoglobulin (12) -lactalbumin Immunoglobulins Seric bovine serum albumen Glycomacropeptid

    0.70 0.40 0.15 0.10 0.04 0.01

    Minor proteins Lactoferrin #0.01

    Enzymes Lactoperoxidase #0.01

    P/ Ca sensitive

    -CHO\ Ca resistant


  • Genetic polymorphism

    The term "genetic polymorphism" defines the fact that each milk protein presents two or more forms genetically determined by autosomal and codominant alleles.

    The absence of dominance is very useful, because homozygous individuals present in the electropherogram only one variant for each protein, while heterozygous ones both variants, so that the count of the gene frequencies for a population results very easy.

  • Genetic polymorphism significance

    to point out milk protein chemical evolution find some eventual similarity with other

    proteins; to verify relationships between different

    species or breeds; to monitor variations that happen in the time

    or in the space for a particular animal zootechnical sciences

  • Genetic polymorphism significance

    dairy industry reproduction efficiency and adaptation capacity, The relationships between protein genetic types

    and milk composition and properties milks characterized by B variants of -lactoglobulin, -casein and b-casein present a nitrogen composition and/or rennet-coagulation properties that are better with respect to those characterized by A types and, therefore, are more favorable for the cheese making.

  • Nomenclature The nomenclature of the variants for each

    protein: progressive alphabetical order (electrophoretical mobility of the bands).

    The nomenclature is unified for the four species of Bos genus, i.e. B. taurus ("common" bovine), B. indicus (zebu), B. grunniens (yak), B. javanicus (banteng of Bali).

    Some exceptions are made for the progressive alphabetical nomenclature: different variants are named with the same letter or on the contrary, the same variant had received two

    different "letters"; there are several variants not well or not still

    characterised, for which is not known the aminoacidsubstitution or its position in the molecule


    More than 95% of the proteins contained in ruminants milk are synthesised from 6 structural genes encoding proteins,

    -lactalbumin and -lactoglobulin, the two main whey proteins in ruminants, and the four caseins s1, s2, and which are encoded by four tightly linked and clustered genes



    Computer aided analysis of the 5-flanking regions of the milk protein genes allowed the identification of several putative cis regulatory sequences and potential sites of binding of transacting regulatory factors.

    Most of the regulatory sequences are located in the proximal regions of milk protein gene promoters, within 200250 bp adjacent to the initiation of the transcription site.

    Genetic polymorphisms within the 5-flanking regions of milk protein genes have been reported

  • -lactalbumin -lactalbumin is essential for the biosynthesis of lactose

    in the mammary gland. It enhances the substrate affinity of -1,4

    galactosyltransferase which catalyses the formation of lactose from glucose and UDP galactose

    Due to its prominent role in milk synthesis, -lactalbumin is considered a valuable genetic marker for milk production traits in cattle.

    Bleck and Bremel (1993) found three single-bppolymorphisms in 5-flanking region of Holstein cattle.

    A single base difference (A/G) at position +15 in the 5-region of the lactalbuminm RNA has been shown as a useful marker associated with an increased milk yield in Holstein cows.

    The polymorphism of -lactalbumin itself has a functional effect or it is linked to some other gene polymorphism that has a functional influence on milk production.

  • -lactalbumin

  • -lactoglobulin It is absent from the milk of rodents, rabbits and

    camels in which instead another major whey protein the whey acidic protein or WAP is found.

    12 polymorphic variants of -lactoglobulin are known in cattle, but the two most frequent, A and B

    These variants differ by two amino acid substitutions in the polypeptide chain arising from two single nucleotide substitutions in the -lactoglobulin gene: Asp 64 (GAT) to Gly (GGT) and Val 118 (GTC) to Ala (GCC).

    Polymorphism within the 5-flanking region of the bovine -lactoglobulin gene (-lgPTU) was studied in which the two predominant -lactoglobulin variants are also A and B.

    Moreover, within the promoter region (-1gP) of the gene, several point mutations were found by SSCP analysis

  • - lactoglobulin

  • - lactoglobulin

  • -casein

    Two major genetic variants of -casein, A and B, have been identified in cattle.

    Variant A shows Thr (ACC) and Asp (GAT) at positions 136 and 148, respectively,

    B variant shows Ile (ATC) and Ala (GCT) at the same positions.

    These differences are the result of single base mutations in the -casein gene and the two alleles (A and B) can be distinguished by the presence or absence of a HindIIIrestriction endonuclease recognition site.

    the change in amino acid position 148 abolishes a HinfIsite in the -casein B allele

    In general, the B variant of -casein has been recognized as superior for milk quality in European cattle breeds; the B allele of -casein is associated with shorter renneting time of the milk

  • Significant differences have been found in the content of both variants A and B of -casein in milks of heterozygous AB cows

    Usually there is more of the protein variant encoded by allele A than that encoded by allele B.

    Moreover, seven polymorphic sites have been identified within the 3-flanking region of the -casein gene and the differences were shown in the length of mRNAs derived from A and B alleles of the gene.

    The regulation on the post-transcriptional stages of -casein expression has been suggested as a possible mechanism of differential allelic expression.

    Schild and Geldermann identified a total of 34 variable sites in approx. 1.2 kb 5-flanking regions of genes encoding bovine calcium-sensitive caseins: 17, 10 and 7 for s1, s2 and -casein, respectively.


  • Discovery of s1-casein

  • Discovery of s2-casein

  • Discovery of -casein

  • Discovery of -casein

  • Discovery of -casein

  • Discovery of -casein


    1. Defect in the processing of primary transcripts: alternative splicing

    2. Casual usage of cryptic splice sites3. Casual exon-skipping

  • CONCLUSIONS to understand the role that each variant can have on milk

    nutritional and technological properties.

    to inquire into the causes that determine these effects on the composition and on the coagulation parameters

    to understand why a simple mutation can have such a relevance for the properties of milk

    if properties arise only from the variation in the protein or rather are due to the action of promoters present in the regulatory not coding sequences of DNA.

    important biotechnological applications, like genetic improvement and molecular engineering, with the aim to obtain breeds more and more suitable for the modern requirements.

  • Thanks