# monte carlo and quasi-monte carlo integration

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Introduction to numerical integration using Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo techniquesTRANSCRIPT

- 1. Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo Integration John D. Cook M. D. Anderson Cancer Center July 24, 2002

2. Trapezoid rule in one dimensionError bound proportional to product of Step size squared Second derivative of integrand N = number of function evaluations Step size h = N-1 Error proportional to N-2 3. Simpsons rule in one dimensionsError bound proportional to product of Step size to the fourth power Fourth derivative of integrand Step size h = N-1 Error proportional to N-4 All bets are off if integrand doesnt have a fourth derivative. 4. Product rules In two dimensions, trapezoid error proportional to N-1 In d dimensions, trapezoid error proportional to N-2/d. If 1-dimensional rule has error N-p, n-dimensional product has error N-p/d 5. Dimension in a nutshell Assume the number of integration points N is fixed, as well as the order of the integration rule p. Moving from 1 dimension to d dimensions divides the number of correct figures by d. 6. Monte Carlo to the rescue Error proportional to N-1/2, independent of dimension! Convergence is slow, but doesnt get worse as dimension increases. Quadruple points to double accuracy. 7. How many figures can you get with a million integration points? Dimension Trapezoid Monte Carlo 1 123 2 6 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 6 2 3 121 3 8. Fine print Error estimate means something different for product rules than for MC. Proportionality factors other than number of points very important. Different factors improve performance of the two methods. 9. Interpreting error bounds Trapezoid rule has deterministic error bounds: if you know an upper bound on the second derivative, you can bracket the error. Monte Carlo error is probabilistic. Roughly a 2/3 chance of integral being within one standard deviation. 10. Proportionality factors Error bound in classical methods depends on maximum of derivatives. MC error proportional to variance of function, E[f2] E[f]2 11. Contrasting proportionality Classical methods improve with smooth integrands Monte Carlo doesnt depend on differentiability at all, but improves with overall flatness. 12. Good MC, bad trapezoid1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.21.5 2 2.5 3 13. Good trapeziod, bad MC8 6 4 2 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 14. Simple Monte Carlo If xi is a sequence of independent samples froma uniform random variable 15. Importance SamplingSuppose X is a random variable with PDF and xi is a sequence of independent samples from X. 16. Variance reduction (example) If an integrand f is well approximated by a PDF that is easy to sample from, use the equation and apply importance sampling.Variance of the integrand will be small, and so convergence will be fast. 17. MC Good news / Bad newsMC doesnt get any worse when theintegrand is not smooth.MC doesnt get any better when theintegrand is smooth.MC converges like N-1/2 in the worstcase.MC converges like N-1/2 in the best case. 18. Quasi-random vs. Pseudo-randomBoth are deterministic. Pseudo-random numbers mimic the statistical properties of truly random numbers. Quasi-random numbers mimic the space-filling properties of random numbers, and improves on them. 19. 120 Point Comparison1 .01 .00 .80 .80 .60 .60 .40 .40 .20 .20 .00 .00 .0 0 .20 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1 .00 .0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1 .0Sobol Sequence Excels PRNG 20. Quasi-random pros and cons The asymptotic convergence rate is more like N-1 than N-1/2. Actually, its more like log(N)dN-1. These bounds are very pessimistic in practice. QMC always beats MC eventually. Whether eventually is good enough depends on the problem and the particular QMC sequence. 21. MC-QMC compromiseRandomized QMCEvaluate integral using a number of randomlyshifted QMC series.Return average of estimates as integral.Return standard deviation of estimates aserror estimate.Maybe better than MC or QMC!Can view as a variance reduction technique. 22. Some quasi-random sequencesHalton bit reversal in relatively prime bases Hammersly finite sequence with one uniform component Sobol common in practice, based on primitive polynomials over binary field 23. Sequence recommendationsExperiment!Hammersley probably best for lowdimensions if you know up front how manyyoull need. Must go through entire cycle orcoverage will be uneven in one coordinate.Halton probably best for low dimensions.Sobol probably best for high dimensions. 24. Lattice Rules Nothing remotely random about them Low discrepancy Periodic functions on a unit cube There are standard transformations to reduce other integrals to this form 25. Lattice Example 26. Advantages and disadvantages Lattices work very well for smooth integrands Dont work so well for discontinuous integrands Have good projections on to coordinate axes Finite sequences Good error posterior estimates Some a priori estimates, sometimes pessimistic 27. Software written QMC integration implemented for generic sequence generator Generators implemented: Sobol, Halton, Hammersley Randomized QMC Lattice rules Randomized lattice rules 28. Randomization approaches Randomized lattice uses specified lattice size, randomize until error goal met RQMC uses specified number of randomizations, generate QMC until error goal met Lattice rules require this approach: theyre finite, and new ones found manually. QMC sequences can be expensive to compute (Halton, not Sobol) so compute once and reuse. 29. Future development Variance reduction. Good transformations make any technique work better. Need for lots of experiments. 30. Contact http://www.JohnDCook.com