presentation by michelle taormino, brittany musolino, and stephanie sink

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  • Solar Power is important to Earth. It is the power of life. Plants use solar energy to photosynthesize, humans use the sun to make vitamin D and it heats up the earth to allow organism to survive, especially out of the water. Photosynthesis provides food to the lowest level of the food chain and thus is the food and power source to every other organism. Throughout time and death, fossil fuels and other organic fuels (wood) were created. But this would not have happened if it werent originally from the suns energy. We too can benefit from the energy the sun provides us. Presentation by Michelle Taormino, Brittany Musolino, and Stephanie Sink

  • Barriers that make Solar Energy less attractive:-Fossil Fuel priced very cheap -Large subsidies given to fossil fuels and nuclear power-Little technology and development is invested into developing solar-based technology-Present infrastructure is energy inefficient and fossil fuel based-Denial that the end of the fossil fuel age is here

    Arguments to Barriers/Advantages of Solar:-Fossil Fuel prices are cheap because they do not include cost to health damage, environmental damage, conflict and war, and climate change-Renewable as long as the lifetime of the sun-Able to be mass produced in large and small scale-Eliminates air pollution,-Reduces climate change, oil spills etc. -Reduces conflict over energy resources because it is widely available-Applicable to businesses and commercial use on a large scale as well as communities and individuals on a small scale.-Contributes to decentralizing the energy production system and in turn making energy more dependable and less vulnerable

  • Passive SolarMore initial cost but will save on energy bills permanently. Can be implemented into the design of any newly constructed building and has a very long life span.Less dependent on utility companies for providing energy to heat the home. More beneficial in suburb and rural areas than urban areas where buildings block the suns rays.

  • Direct GainWindows dominantly on the South side of the buildingWindows 10-20% of floor area Overhang to protect from summer sunLight colors of walls and ceiling reflect more lightUse of stone, mason, concrete, brick etc. stored heat throughout the day to radiate thermal heat back at nightCan be about 75% effective

  • Indirect GainUse of a thermal body to create thermal heat that air currents will circulate throughout the living area. Ex. Trombe Wall

  • Isolated GainAttached sunroom or greenhouse to gain thermal heat that then can be transported throughout the living space.Sunrooms and greenhouses have high initial cost and the return of investment can take many years.

  • Active SolarBased on 1 kWh of energy=3413 Btu6 hours of sun with 40% collector efficiency= 8,191 Btu. For 7 days=57,338 Btu = .4 gallon of crude oil (1 gal. = 140,000 Btu) Electrical Power plant is only 33% efficient.

  • Solar Panel 40% total efficiency20% loss due to convection4% loss due to conduction8% loss due to reflection and glaze absorption8% loss due to reflectionSolar Panel has about a 10 year life span$30-80 per square foot of panel

  • WorldwideGermany produces about half the worlds solar energy, even though they have abundant cloudy days.Spain requires new buildings to have solar panels and use solar energy as a portion of their energy needs.South Korea in 2008 completed the worlds largest solar plant.China has more solar panel manufacturers then the rest of the world put together. Investing in the solar power can end the U.S. demand on foreign oil by 2050.

  • Solar Thermal Power PlantsSolar Thermal (heat) Energy is a carbon-free, renewable alternative to the power we generate with fossil fuels like coal and gasBetween 1984 and 1991, the United States built nine plants in Californias Mojave DesertThey continue to provide a combined capacity of 354 megawatts annually, power used in 500,000 Californian home

  • In solar thermal power plants the incoming radiation is tracked by a number of large mirror fields, which concentrate the energy towards absorbers.

  • Power Plants Vs. SolarIn 2008, the average nuclear power plant generated about 12.4 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh). There were 65 nuclear power plants with 104 operating nuclear reactors that generated a total of 808.97 billion killowatt-hours, or almost 20% of the nations electricity.There are two main types of technologies for converting solar energy to electricity: photovoltaic (PV) and solar-thermal electric. In 2008, less than 1% of the nation's electricity was from solar power

  • DisadvantagesPower producing plants adjust to solar energy only being available during the day.Energy conversion rates or efficiencies are low compared to other energy sources. Low energy conversion rates to electrical energy in both solar thermal and photovoltaics are being addressed by increasingly stronger research and development activities of key companies.High capital cost requirement for the procurement or production of materials and installation of solar energy systems or facilities.

  • Advantages Use of cheap barren lands not frequently affected by climatic changes and that typically have sunny weather condition throughout the year.Reduced operating cost given the fact that solar power is free.Reduced harmful effects to the environment (reduced carbon emissions) are compared to using other sources of energy like crude oil. Reduced dependency on imported crude oil.

  • Photovoltaic Cells

  • History of Photovoltaic CellsFrench physicist Edmond Becquerel first described the photovoltaic effect in 1839.Photovoltaics were first studied in solids (Selenium) though only at a 1-2% efficiency. Later moved to pure crystalline silicon 6% efficient.Photovoltaic comes directly from photo meaning light and voltaic meaning electricity.

  • PV CellsFound in calculators and satellites.First used exclusively in space but have become more common in homes.Now made of semiconductors such as silicon.

  • How They WorkLight strikes the cell and is absorbed within the semiconductor.Energy from the light is then transferred to the semiconductor.Energy knocks the electrons loose and lets them flow freely. Cells have electron fields that force the freed electrons in one direction.

  • How They WorkThis flow of electron causes a current.By placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cells, electricity can be drawn from them.The current with the cells voltage defines the amount of power or wattage the solar cell can produce.Typically mounted on southern facing roofs.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x2zjdtxrisc

  • Grid-Tie SystemSolar PV panels produce DC electricity which then runs through an inverter producing AC electricity and is fed back to your power company. Users of the system can receive a credit when they produce more electricity than they use. Causes their meters to go backwards.

  • Grid Tie System

  • PV WorldwideProduction of photovoltaics jumped to 3,800 mega watts worldwide in 2007, up to 50% since 2006.Has been growing an average of 48% each year since 2002.Worlds fastest growing energy source.Top five PV producing countries are: Japan, China, Germany, Taiwan and United States.

  • PV in U.S.Growth installation in the U.S. increased 20% in 2005 to 31% in 2006, primarily driven by California and New Jersey.Incentives such as tax credit of up to $2,000 helped to achieve an 83% growth in 2007.Could power the entire United States.

  • CostThe cost for a PV module excluding installation has dropped from $100 per watt in 1974 to less than $4 per watt.

  • AdvantagesSun gives off 1,000 watts of energy per square meter, could easily power our homes and offices for free of the sun.Gas prices rice and resources dwindle but energy from the sun will never cease to exist. Many times government gives incentives for people who have them installed.Minimal maintenance and are extremely safe (no moving parts).Long service lifetimes.

  • DisadvantagesStill quite expensive to purchase compared to available electricity. Depending on location, PV may not be as efficient. Surface area requirement for PV installations are typically somewhat large.

  • The suns energy has enough power to meet the energy needs of the world. Incentives are utilized to promote solar power but more incentives will promote solar power better. Sustainable because there are no pollution, particulates or greenhouse gases as emissions, global climate change will be reduced, and conflicts over energy resources will be radically reduced. Also, the environment will be more intact because no mining, or drilling or oil spills would occur to harm organisms of that area.

  • ConclusionThe suns energy has enough power to meet the energy needs of the world. Incentives are utilized to promote solar power but more incentives will promote solar power better. Sustainable because there are no pollution, particulates or greenhouse gases as emissions, global climate change will be reduced, and conflicts over energy resources will be radically reduced. Also, the environment will be more intact because no mining, or drilling or oil spills would occur to harm organisms of that area.