six sigma and lean six sigma overview
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Lean Six SigmaAn OverviewLEAN SIX SIGMA AN OVERVIEWSix Sigma is a business management strategy, originally developed byMotorola that today enjoys wide-spread application in many sectors ofindustry.Six Sigma seeks to identify and remove thecauses of defects and errorsinmanufacturing and/or service delivery and business processes. It uses a setof management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a dedicated infrastructureof people within the organization who are experts in these methods. Six Sigma aims to deliverBreakthrough Performance Improvement from current levels) in business and customerrelevant operational and performance measures.Business or operational measuresare elements like: Customer Satisfaction Rating Score Time taken to respond to customer queries orcomplaints % Defect rate in Manufacturing Cost of executing a business process transaction Yield (Productivity) of service operations orproduction Inventory turns (or) Days of Inventory carried Billing and Cash Collection lead time Equipment Efficiency (Downtime, time taken to fixetc.,) Accident / Incident rate Time taken to recruit personnel and so onSix Sigma initiatives are planned and implemented in organizations on Project by Projectbasis. Each project aimsnot only to improvea chosen performance metric butalso sustainthe improvement achieved.Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of stepsand has quantified financial targets (revenue increase, cost reduction or profit increase)Six Sigma Historical backgroundSix Sigma was originally developed as a set of practices designed to improve manufacturingprocesses and eliminate defects, but its application was subsequently extended to many othertypes of business processes as well. In Six Sigma, a defect is defined as anything that could leadto customer dissatisfaction and / or does not meet business set specifications.The elements of the methodology were first formulated byBill Smith atMotorolain 1986. Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades ofquality improvement methodologies such as quality control,TQM, and ZeroDefects, based on the work of pioneers such asShewhart, Deming, Juran,Ishikawa, Taguchiand others.eXample Consulting GroupE-Mail:enquiry@eXampleCG.com, Web:www.eXampleCG.com Lean Six SigmaAn OverviewLike its predecessors,Six Sigma assertsthat: Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e.reduce processvariation) are of vital importance to business success. Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can bemeasured,analyzed, improved and controlled. Achieving sustained performance and quality improvement requires commitment fromthe entire organization,particularly from top-level management.How is Six Sigma different?Features that differentiate Six Sigma apart from previous qualityimprovement initiatives include A clear focus on achieving measurable andquantifiable financialreturnsfrom any Six Sigma project. An increased emphasis onstrong and passionate management leadership and support Aspecial organization infrastructureof "Champions," "Master Black Belts," "BlackBelts, Green Belts etc. to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach A clear commitment tomaking decisions on the basis of verifiable data, rather thanassumptions and guesswork. The term "Six Sigma" is derived from a field of statistics known as process capabilitystudy. It refers to the ability of processes to produce avery high proportion of outputwithin specification. Processes that operate with "Six sigma quality" over the shortterm are assumed to produce (long-term) defect levels below3.4 defects per millionopportunities (DPMO).Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that levelof quality or better.In recent years, Six Sigma has sometimes been combined withlean manufacturing(management)to yield a methodology namedLean Six Sigma.What is Lean?Leanis a philosophy and set of managementtechniques focused on continuous eliminatingwaste so that every process, task or workaction is made value adding(the real outputcustomer pays for!!)as viewed from customerperspective. Lean waste elimination targetsthe Eight Wastes namely:Overproduction Making more thanwhat is needed by customer / marketdemandOver-processing- Doing more to aproduct/service (but not perceived asvalue by customer)eXample Consulting GroupLean Six SigmaAn OverviewWaiting For material, information, people, equipment, procedures, approvals andmoreTransportation Movement of products / items during or after productionDefects Errors, mistakes, non-complying products, services, documents, transactionsRework and Scrap Products, transactions or outputs not meeting specifications andhave to be fixed, redone, rectified, marked down or scrapped / unusable.Motion Mainly people, document movement, searching etc.Inventory Buffer stocks or resources (Raw, Work in process, FG, Bench staff etc.,)Unused Creativity People knowledge and skills that are not utilized by the companyWastes make the organization slow, inefficient and uncompetitive Lean methods help toremove / reduce waste and contributes to driving business agility (velocity) through smoothwork flow across the organization resulting in rapid fulfillment of customer needs in anoptimum manner. Six Sigma MethodologySix Sigma has two key methodologies:DMAIC and DMADV, both inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle.DMAIC is used to improve an existing business process;DMADVis used to create new product or processdesigns.DMAICThe basic DMAIC methodology consists of the following fivesteps:Defineprocess improvement goals that are consistent with customer demands and theenterprise strategy.Measurekey aspects of the current process and collect relevant data.Analyzethe data to verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what therelationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered.Improveor optimize the process based upon data analysis using techniques like Designof Experiments.Controlto ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result indefects. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability, move on to production, set upcontrol mechanisms and continuously monitor the process.DMADV (also known as DFSS Design for Six Sigma)The basic methodology consists of the following fivesteps:Definedesign goals that are consistent withcustomer demands and the enterprise strategy.Measureand identify CTQs (characteristics thatare Critical To Quality), product capabilities,production process capability, and risks.eXample Consulting GroupE-Mail:enquiry@eXampleCG.com, Web:www.eXampleCG.com Lean Six SigmaAn OverviewAnalyzeto develop and design alternatives, create a high-level design and evaluatedesign capability to select the best design.Designdetails, optimize the design, and plan for design verification. This phase mayrequire simulations.Verifythe design, set up pilot runs, implement theproduction process and hand it over to the process owners.Six Sigma Implementation rolesOne of the key innovations of Six Sigma is theprofessionalizing ofimprovement managementfunctions. Prior to Six Sigma, quality and improvementmanagement in practice was largely relegated to the production floor and to statisticians in aseparate quality department. Six Sigma borrows martial arts ranking terminology to define ahierarchy (and career path) that cuts across all business functions and a promotion pathstraight into the executive suite.Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementationExecutive Leadershipincludes the CEO and other members of top management. Theyare responsible for setting up avisionfor Six Sigma implementation. They alsoempowerthe other role holders with thefreedom and resourcesto explore new ideas forbreakthrough improvements.Championsare responsible forSix Sigmaimplementationacross the organization in anintegrated manner. The Executive Leadershipdraws them from upper management.Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts.Master Black Belts, identified by champions,act asin-house coachesandsubject matterexpertson Six Sigma. Theydevote 100% oftheir timeto Six Sigma. They assist championsand guide Black Belts and Green Belts. Apartfrom statistical tasks, their time is spent onensuring consistent applicationof Six Sigmaacross various functions and departments.Black Beltsoperate under Champions and Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigmamethodology to specific projects. Theydevote 100% of their timeto Six Sigma. Theyprimarilyfocus on Six Sigma project execution, whereas Champions and Master BlackBelts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma.Green Beltsare employees who undertakeSix Sigmaimplementationalong with theirother job responsibilities. They operate under the guidance of Black Belts andChampions.eXample Consulting GroupE-Mail:enquiry@eXampleCG.com, Web:www.eXampleCG.com Lean Six SigmaAn OverviewSix Sigma BenefitsLeading companies have implemented Six Sigma and realized gainful results. Motorola hasreported overUS$17 billionin savings from Six Sigma as of 2006.Otherearly adopters of Six Sigmawho achieved well-publicized success includeHoneywell InternationalandGeneral Electric(introduced byJack Welch).By the late 1990s, about two-thirds of the Fortune 500 organizations had begun Six Sigmainitiatives with the aim of reducing costs and improving quality.