smiley teacher handbook
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- 1. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. Thispublication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be heldresponsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. The ICT Potential Social Mindedness YourTown Brief Introduction to The DimensionsGame logic and Instructions SMILEY FrameworkInstructions for theRevolutionThe main focus of this section is to address thepotential of the game-based learning process proposedby the SMILEY projectThe BackgroundTodays trainers and trainees are from totally separate worlds. The biggestunderlying dynamic in training and learning today is the rapid and unexpectedSir Ken Robinsonconfrontation of a corps of trainers and teachers raised in a pre-digital Changing Educationgeneration and educated in the styles of theParadigmspast, with a body of learners raised in thedigital world of Ipod, MTV, Facebook,Every country on earth atTwitter, MySpace, streaming movies and the moment is reformingsocial videogames. Considering this, theevolution of the educational systems passespublic education. Therethrough the re-inventing of tools forare two reasons for itlearning even thanks to the intensive use of Watch the Full VideoICT in education. This process is possibleonly if it is based upon a definition ofengaged learning in the perspective of both trainers and trainees.Engaged learning is grounded in recent notions of active learning, wherelearners take responsibility for their own learning. Learners actively developlearning strategies and formulate new ideas and understanding in conversationsand work with others. Active engagement is defined as engaging in the learningprocess, constructing knowledge from experience, meaning interpretation andIf you are ihaving interactions with peers and teachers. Congruent to constructivist not prepared to be wrong, youllnotions of learning, knowledge evolves as a meaning construction and never come up with anythinginterpretation process where people negotiate with one another relating to original Ken Robinsontheir multiple perceptions of reality.
2. 21Engaged Learning and Situated Cognition are two of the mainconcepts that constitute the background of SMILEY.What do these terms mean?Engaged or meaningful learning can be traced back learning processes and outcomes;(b) interactivity;to the related concept of situated cognition. (c) ability to address cognitive as well as affectiveSituated cognition places learning within a learning issues; and, perhaps most importantly, (d)participatory framework and not just in anmotivation for learning. The combined weight of theindividual mind.factors mentioned above has resulted in widespreadpublic interest in games as learning tools.Learning often happens in a social setting,community and context. From this perspective, The on going research activity involving both gamehuman learning is best understood as a process of designing, theoretical modelling and learningdialogue, appropriation and socialisation.assessment represents the clue that todays NetGeneration, or digital natives, have becomeAnother implication of situated cognition is that ifdisengaged with traditional models of education.we view knowledge and thinking as inherentlysituated in social and physical contexts, much of They require multiple streams of information,what is learned is implicit. By immersing students in prefer inductive reasoning, want frequent and quickactivities and authentic problem tasks characterisedinteractions with content, and have exceptionalby rich conceptual meanings and encouraging themvisual literacy skills characteristics that are allto explore and discover, teachers help students matched well with Digital Game Based Learning.acquire the skills and dispositions necessary toparticipate in disciplinary discourse, which could be In YourTown (the SMILEY game) the player will becalled knowledge about a focus: in our case the engaged through the game dynamics in a learningconcept of social mindedness. process that involves his/her capability to interpretand decide about a concrete problem-solvingEducators and trainers began to take notice of thesituation.power and potential of computer games foreducation and training back in the 1970s and 1980s. It is important to underline that all the gameComputer games were hypothesized to besituations are designed starting form the concept ofpotentially useful for educational purposes and social mindedness.were also hypothesized to provide multiplebenefits: (a) complex and diverse approaches to Lets start taking into consideration the concept ofsocial mindedness in order to better understand thegeneral framework of SMILEY.2 3. 21Social Mindedness as an umbrella conceptAn individual attitude concerned with social conditionsand benefits of the others, according with the welfare ofthe wide societyThe growing relevance of bullying episodes insense of community: an experience that primarilyschools all over the European context is the takes place thanks to educational agencies as schoolframework of reference of SMILEY. The wholeand family during the process of socialization.project is based upon the concept of socialmindedness. This section of the training courseIn detail, according to the operative needs ofbriefly presents the constitutive elements of social SMILEY project, the concept of social mindednessmindedness as operative concept explaining how itcrosses the main structural aspects of daily socialinteracts with general structure of the project. reality: socialization, family, educational institutions, organizations and groups, membershipA definition of Social Mindedness can be expressed and social stratification.in this way: social mindedness is an individualattitude concerned with social conditions andIn this sense, social mindedness is an example ofbenefits of the others, according to the welfare ofpro-social behavior that creates harmoniousthe whole society.relations between members of the group. Starting from a sociological perspective, social mindednessThe definition of social mindedness denotes an is composed by five operative dimensions thatumbrella concept that links social cohesion andtranslate the integration process:social inclusion: it is impossible to comprehendindividual reality without considering the communala) Holistic membership to a definite context;dimension of the social life. b) Recognition of the interdependence betweenIn this way the social mindedness experience enablesocial actors;people to develop the necessary bag of c) Social capital dynamics;knowledge, skills, values and attitudes useful forsecuring a sustainable and peaceful world in which d) the dynamics of cooperation to achieve commoneveryone has the right to fulfill his/her potential. goals;In a sociological perspective, the connectione) Family Habits.between values and social competences leadindividuals to realize integration, cohesion and Lets start explaining these components! 4. 21Membership is linked to social relashionshipIt is not only subjective but a context matterSocial relationships are very important in of industrial society raised fears that wethe formation of the subject as well as to were losing our sense of community: thathelp him to live the membership to every the faceless, anonymous sprawl of thesocial group in a right balance betweenworlds town was depriving us of theindependence and belonging.basic need to feel as though we are part of something bigger than ourselves.The importance of belonging toparticular groups changes over time. AsIt is possible to distinguish four differentwe join and leave different social dimensions or states in thenetworks and groups, we reposition involvement of individuals in the contextourselves in relation to others, of human relations: territorial location,developing new connections and ecological participation, socialdiscarding others in a continuous processbelonging, and cultural conformity.of social interaction and integration.In fact, to develop a sense of belongingis an ongoing process that involvesMembership includes Five attributes:membership in a wide variety of boundariesdifferent groups, or exclusion from,during the course of our lives. The emotional safetyrelative importance that we place on ourmembership within particular groups personal investment(family, peer, religious group, etc.) saysa lot about our personal and social a common symbol systemidentity. a sense of belonging andWhile the need to belong is a basicidentificationaspect of being human, the ways inwhich we satisfy this need have changedsignificantly over time. The developmentIn deepThe Parsonsian FrameworkFollowing the Talcott Parsonssscheme of reference, the structure of social belonging can be described by startingfrom the relations among the four chief components that define it as such:attachment, loyalty, solidarity, and the sense of affinity or we-feeling.To better understand the meaning of the holistic membership to a particular groupwe have, on the one hand, to enumerate the attribute of membership, and tounderline the principal contexts of affiliation, on the other hand, to stress on thesense of belonging and identification of every member to the context. 5. 43Boundaries are marked by things such as language,dress, and ritual, indicating who belongs and whodoes not. When we meet others, we want to knowimmediately whether the other is friend or not, andwhether he/she is capable enacting their respectivefriendliness or enmity. If we teach today asThe ways in which we sort out belonging also differsaccording to culture, we could look, in fact, towe taught yesterday,some differences between the East and the West. we rob our childrenFinally, group members of tomorrowlegitimate needs forboundaries to protecttheir intimate socialconnections have oftenJohn Deweybeen overlooked.Emotional safetyconcerns the emotionaland physical wellbeing of the person, so that he/shecan realize his/her full potential in the group. Theemotional environment is very important for the The sense of belonging andmembers of the group, because of their feelings of identification of every member to thebelonging and safety. If they dont feel safe, they group and contextwill not be able to trust anybody, or themselves.Moreover, such negative thoughts result in peopleTo be a group it is fundamental to feelfeeling that they do not belong. ourselves as a team, i.e. we-feeling. The members of the group have to see it as aThe personal incentives, sense of self and perceived new subject: they are part of the groupoptions are critical determinants of human in a holistic way. At the same time, thebehaviour. Personal incentives refer to the reasons necessity of everyone to satisfy his/heridentified for involvement in an activity, and own needs into the group must beinclude such incentives as recognition, mastery, interrelated to the satisfaction of thecompetition and affiliation. Sense of self is needs of the group. In this way, being acomprised of ones own perceived competence to member of a group means:engage in an activity, self-reliance, goaldirectedness and social identity. -to be similar to the other member of the same group;A common symbol system Understanding commonsymbol systems is a prerequisite to understand a-to be different from the othercommunity. The symbol is to the social world whatthe cell is to the biotic world and the atom to thephysical world. The symbol is the beginning of thesocial world as we know it.A sense of belonging and identification It concernsexpectation or faith on belonging, and acceptanceby the community. To know ones own needs, andto satisfy them are the principal reasons why peoplebecame part of a group. To belong and to identifyourselves satisfy important individual needs linkedto the personal and social identity, the self-esteemand safety, and to the psychological need to beuseful to the others. The sense of membership is anessential condition for the existence of any group. 6. From socialisation to intercultural competenceBehaviour is the most evident There are four basic sociologicalmanifestation of human acts, but notinterpretations of social interactions:every behaviour is meaningful. Onlyhuman behaviour has a meaning, or 1 - behaviouralmakes sense, is described in sociology2 of rational choice (transactional)as an activity. Its sense can beinterpreted in various ways, consciously3 symbolic interactionismor not. It is culture that provides certainfixed models and patterns of behaviour4 dramaturgical.and their interpretation. For example,language is one of the most complexsystems of meanings developed in agiven community and its general sense is1 - Interaction is understood as abased on its communicative function.mutual orientation of individualsBoth our language and the majority of behaviour manifested as a sequenceour behaviour is directed to otherof stimuli and reactions; the behaviourpeople; it is a transmission of someof one actor becomes a set of stimuli,message to the others. In this way an to which the other actor reacts.activity becomes a social activity.2 - Interaction is perceived as a mutualGenerally speaking, there are four typesexchange of goods or values betweenof social actions: creative, imitative, partners. This exchange is rational andhabitual and destructive. However, we correlative.deal with a social action only when our3 - Interaction is interpreted as anperformance is directed at other actorsexchange of ideas, symbols andpotential response. A single andmeanings; in this type of interactiontemporary social action where a mutualparticular emphasis is put on ansocial reaction between at least twoindividuals view of a situation or ofpeople takes place is a social contact.other actors involved, their personalUsually most of such contacts are ofinterpretation of the specific reality.transient, short-lived nature. But in asituation when a social contact changes 4 - In the light of this interpretationinto a longer and dynamic sequence of the social world, especially in itssocial action we can talk about a socialeveryday dimension, is a theatre, ainteraction. In such a context an drama. In all their doings people areincreasingly apparent, objective anddriven by their desire to make a goodmutual relation between two individuals impression on others. This is why they(a discussion, a quarrel, haggling, tend to manage their impression inestablishing a relationship, etc.) occurs.order to transmit to the others onlythose messages and signals that areIt is in a course of a social interactionpositive.that a social distance appearsdemonstrated by a spatial and timedistance between two interactingsubjects, the variety of whose isdetermined by culture. So, it is a form ofa civil distance: from an intimate, asocial to a public one. 7. Definitional Phisical Meaning Orientation Orientation Mutual Sequence Accidental Rhythmical Normatively Scheme of Feature movement towards to reaction occasional of episodes of episodes of defined interactions others of othersreactions mutual interactions interactionscourse of among reactionseventspositions Sociological (roles) Term Behaviour + Activity + + Social activity+ + + Social action+ + ++ Social contact+ + +++ interaction+ + +++ + Repetable interaction+ + +++ + + Regular interaction+ + +++ + ++ Regulated interaction+ + +++ + ++ + Social relationship+ + +++ + ++ + +Social circles and social groups constitutethe social environment:- Social circle is a part of socialThere are two types of social groups: primary andreality that has been distinguishedsecondary ones.because a certain number of actors Primary group is typically small and thesharing the same social status;interactions among its members are informal, spontaneous, direct (face to face)- Social group indicates a collectionand personal (e.g. a group of friends).of individuals interconnected by Secondary group is numerous andcommon awareness of participation,a common sense of identity and interactions among people are of formal,shared patterns of socialanonymous character and focus on a specificrelationships. In other words, on thetask (e.g. a workplace).one hand the social groups are There are groups that combine functions of the twocreated by social relationships andtypes as the school is.on the other hand- social groupscreate the environment in whichThanks to socialization process an individualsocial relationships are generated.define his/her own social personality that is an integrated set of his/her past and present social roles. Therefore it is only a part of the individuals personality, which consists of other types of personalities as well mental and cultural. 8. Social personalityshapes the elementary models and patterns of anIn deep individual behaviour, their interactionsElias chains ofwith the others and it forms their socialinterdependencecapital.Nevertheless,socialcapital does not determine all the real social behaviours ofaperson, theirEach individual, even themost powerful, even arelationships withothers.Specifictribal chief, an absoluteattitudes and social behaviours, i.e.monarch, or a dictator, is a social mindedness of an individual arepart of a chain ofinterdependence, the also influenced by mental factors (e.g.representative of a function their character) and, to a larger extent,wich is formed and by cultural factors. It is the diversity ofmaintained only in relationto other function which cancultural context, or adopted values,only be understood in termssymbolsandbeliefs/religions,thatof specific structures andthe specific and specificdecides about the variety of both socialtensions in this total groups and societies. Therefore we cancontext say that, basically, societies are similarAs Norbert Elias statues all on the level of social needs (such as athe social actors are born family, work, bringing up children,into a particular chains ofinterdependence that etc.), but not on the level of culturaltranslates the interlinkages solutions tosatisfytheseneeds.without which he/she could Different cultural values underline thenever become fully human. recognition of diversity, which may butSocial actors are born intodoes not haveto leadto socialchains of functionlinterdependencies in which antagonisms or hostility towards thetheir habits and self- others.perceptions are shaped bythe others around them.Chains of interedependenceare simultaneously formsand chains of power. 9. Family Habits are very important determinants ofhuman natureIn the social perspective a family is a The family dynamics greatly influencesgroup based on a bond resulting fromthe process of socializing youngcommon residence, shared property,generation. This process can even leadlove, mutual loyalty and helpfulness, to negative social effects in the formconcern about children and theirof a lack of integrational abilities. Theupbringing, emotional openness, i.e. thesecond factor that has a strong impactfactors that, when summed up, on the socialisation of the youth in theconstitute a strong sense of identity offamily depends on its broader socio-us. cultural context, on different socialorganisation which determines theA family is a social group the structure of cultural transmission dynamicswhich is characterised by a specificbetween generations.system of positions and roles that areindependent from those who play themThere are three types of cultures:and which are manifested as a network post-figurative;of internal social relationships, such asmarriage, fatherhood, kinship, etc. configurative;From the cultural perspective, a family is pre-figurative.a specific collection of values, norms,symbols and beliefs that reflect theThe post-figurative culture is typicalgeneral family culture of a given of traditional culture; the youngsociety. In a synthetic approach we can generation is shaped withoutsay that a family in a biological disturbance their parents serve them(procreation) and social (socialisation)as a model. There are no alternativesense creates and shapes the newmodels and quite naturally there is nomembers of society. In this perspective itdiscrepancy between social andis a group that is exclusive andcultural patterns of both generations.irreplaceable.The configurative culture, whereOnly the family provides new-born generations coexists as equal partners,human beings with an adequate socialis increasingly common in the modernenvironment as well as with the culture. The young generation doesenvironment necessary for their mental, not follow their parents behaviouralsocial and cultural constitution to shape.patterns, but imitates their peers (e.g.These are the rudimental family such a situation takes place infunctions when we take into immigrant families as a result of theconsideration the fact that a human need for assimilation).comes to this world in an incomplete,weak form and their existence depends The pre-figurative culture isentirely on a social group to which theycharacterised by a social configurationhave been born. where the older generation has to re-socialise, i.e. learn new things fromThe dynamics of the social life of athe younger ones as a consequence offamily has typically a volatile but rapid social, cultural or technologicalrepeatable rhythm, which on the one changes. Such phenomena are morehand depends on the roles played by and more typical of the westernfamily members and on the other onsociety of today. Paradoxically,the forms of social children become their parents tutorsperception/experiencing of time. 10. The previuos sequence shows clearly that theprincipal difference in the cultures of inter-generational transfer results in the fact that theprocess of socialisation slips out of control of the Education is not theolder generation, although they never lose theirinfluence on the educational process entirely,filling of a pail, butespecially when their children are young.the lighting of a fireThe positive or negative reference groups for theyoung generation are the out-groups rather than Willian Butler Yeatstheir own family. At a certain stage of thesocialisation process their own family may even turnout to be a rejected member group. In such asituation on the level of social attitudes andbehaviour a generation gap may appear, which caneventually upset the general social balance.The third factor that determines the family In the masculine society (of a highculture is the type of general cultural reference of masculinityrate)theupsetthe society in which the family lives. In the light ofbalance of the maternal role inrecent extensive research on cultures it has beenfavour of the paternal one is afound out that there are the following five basicnorm; fathers are responsible fordimensions (the Big Five) of cultural diversitythe living standards while motherswhich are highly influential on the level of socialtake care of the sphere ofattitudes and behaviour:emotions.1) power distanceIn a feminine society both men2) collectivism and individualism,and women, boys and girls aretreated equally; all of them have3) masculinity and femininity (gender),to meet identical generational4) uncertainly avoidancestandards.5) time orientationIn the society of weak uncertaintyavoidance children are vaguely In an environment with a low power distance informed of what is forbidden orchildren are treated equally to parents; partnerevil; there is no difference inrelationships prevail; parental care aims ataddressing family members andchildrens leaving home as soon as possible. In strangers; what is strange is meantthe environment where the power distance is to be interesting;high parents expect unconditioned obediencefrom their offspring; the majority of socialIn the society where uncertaintyrelationshipsisdetermined bystrongavoidance is strong children aredependence of the young from the adults.very well aware of what isforbiddenand evil; family In the collectivistic environment decisions are members are addressed differentlymade within the family; children that express than strangers, strange meanstheir own opinions are regarded as difficult anddangerous;bad tempered; they are taught to think in theterms of us; In short time orientation societies In individualistic families new types ofmarriage is a moral obligation;behaviour are desired and valued; childrenliving with parents-in-law meanswithout their own opinions are considered weak; conflict; children should be taughtthey are taught to think in the terms of me;tolerance and respect for others;the obligations towards the family is regarded as In the long time orientationan act of free will and thus respected. societies marriage is a pragmaticrelationship; elder children havepower over the younger ones. 11. Cooperation is workingtogether sharing belivesand feelingsCooperation is the process of working oracting together. This definition refers toall that behaviors which involves workingtogether, side by side, regarding at This attitude promotes peer friendshipindividual or collective subjects. In this and conflict resolution.sense its contrary is the concept ofcompetition. Cooperation, as social doings,The cooperative feeling is notcomprehend a huge variety of activity: toimpersonal: it is a network of personal relations that are important forshare resources, to set common goals, to everyone promoting the sense ofrecognize social needs, to respect publiccommunity and the construction ofgoods. collective values. The motivation to cooperate to overcome conflictsCooperation in human societies is mainly depends on the quality of relationship.based on social norms so it is necessary toAccording to this point, individualsexplain social norms to explain humanshould make the effort to coordinate different points of view.cooperation. Social norms are standards ofbehavior that are based on widely shared We can see this process starting frombeliefs. The group in which social norms the perspective of the social skillsprevail can be a family, a peer group, antheory.organization or even a whole society.The group members might conform to the Following the theory of social skills thenorms voluntarily (if their individual goals individuals have to motivate the others to cooperate. These skills are useful toare in line with the normatively required engage other people in collectivebehaviour) or they might be forced toaction promoting peaceful social order.follow the norms. If the individual goalsCooperation-skilledindividualsdiffer from the normatively required motivate the others and, at the samebehavior the norm violations are sociallytime, they foster motivations forpunished. The demand for a social norm themselves. Where do they find these social skills?arises when individual actions causepositive or negative influence for other 1. Coordination of efforts andpeople. tasks andorientation toachievement;There are (at least) two perspectives to 2. Feeling of agreement with theunderstand social cooperation:others and dialogue; 3. Confidence in different ideas In the state of nature man is a and shared believes;predator and hisbehavior 4. Common goals and respect fordepends on a struggle competition the other.for surviving; social order is theproduct social institutions thatpermit large-scale cooperationamong unrelated self-interestedindividuals. In this perspective therole of the internalization of socialvalues is fundamental. Cooperation starts from feelingsof mutual affection and mutualtrust. These feelings are orientedto sympathy and consciousnesstowards others. 12. Social Capital is not capital in economicsense. It refers to the interactive and positivepotential of networksSocial capital refers to trust The starting point of this interactivenetworks that individuals activate for dynamic is individual-instrumentalsocial support, as financial capital can but the arrival point is collective-be drawn upon to be used for ideal referred to the whole societyinvestment. In fact, like financialand its basic needs.capital, social capital can beexpanded invested and reinvested.In this view, cooperation becomes aSocial Capital is composed by all thesynthesis of individual and collective,benefits accessed by individuals both professional and moral values.thanks to their affiliation in groupsIt is clear that the two perspectivesand social relationships. In this sense, are focused on two different aspectsthe volume of social capital owned of social capital essence: on the oneby an individual is determined by thehand, the instrumental importance ofquantity and the quality of othercooperation, on the other hand, theforms of capital (economic, cultural,cultural and holistic significance of it.symbolic etc.) possessed.Thesociologicalliteratureconcerning According to the framework of SMILEYsocial capital highlight a wide range of project social capital can beideas and perspectives about it: not considered as a resource able toall the approaches have a positive stimulate solidarity even into aview of the concept. context characterized by differences. In this sense positive social capital isTaking into consideration the SMILEYframework, socialcapital isconsidered as a positive component ofindividual interactive dynamics inorder to enhance integration andsocial cohesion.Following this line, thephenomenology of social capital showsthree basic elements:1. The individual will;2. Group participation;3. Performance of the institutional structure. In deep The J.Coleman viewFollowing Coleman theory it is possible to distinguish three forms of socialCapital:a) obligations, expectations, trustworthiness of structures;b) information channels;c) norms and effective sanctions.The first of these forms a) refers to situations in which an individual doessomething for someone else with the expectation that that person willreciprocate at some time in the future.The second form of social capital b) refers to the idea that an individual cantrust another to provide accurate information which is then used to informaction. The third type of social capital c) refers to effective norms andsanctions which contribute to a generalized environment of trust. Each of theseforms of Social Capital facilitate the resolution of collective action problems 13. YOUR TOWN as a Social MindednessTool in EducationIn SMILEY the game, YOURTOWN, the student/player is catapulted in alearning ambient that involves his/her capability to interpret and decidein a virtual city daily life. It is important to underline that all the gamesituations are designed starting from the social mindedness dimensionspersented above.In Your Town there are four missions. Foreach mission the incidents are defined inrelation with the theoretical segmentation ofthe concept of social mindedness definedabove.These factors are the following:a) sense of holistic membership to a definitecontext ;b) recognition of the inter-dependencebetween social actorsc) interactive dynamics of the structure ofrelational networks (social capital)d) dynamics of cooperation in order to achievecommon goalse) traditions and family habitsThe final goal of the game is to reach one ofthe main targets of SMILEY project: to fostersocial awareness and conflict resolutionapproach in the pupils involved into the gameexperience. In a certain sense, the focus of our The whole purpose ofattention is the correct balance between an education is to turn mirrors into windowsamazing game experience and a research-basedapproach to engaged learning.Sydney J. Harris 14. From a concrete point of view YourTown is divided in two steps:a) a phase in which the objective of thegame is to find hidden incidentshappening across the map of YourTownb) deal with them during a specific gamesession in which the player could reflecton the nature of his/her choice. In facts,during the council meeting phase ofthe game the player expresses hisevaluation about the relevance of theThe MENU of the Player identified incident providing data,recorded by the learning platform,useful for the game outputs overall Find hidden incidents happening across interpretation.the map of Your Town Decide if the selected incident will be The map of the city is divided in four included in the folder for the second parts (four missions) corresponding to phase four defined areas. Moreover, these Do it as soon as possible areas are inspired by the building styleof the five Countries involved into the Extra bonus for quick search SMILEY project. Extra bonus for good choices 15. There are twenty-four relevant incidentshidden in the town, 6 in each area; theplayer must click to find the incidents ineach of the four areas of YourTown. Thepoint of the game was that players must,as quickly as possible, find the correctincidents to add to their file. There are 3types of incidents: Negative Positive SubjectiveIn negative incidents the polarity of thesocial mindedness dimension is associatedto negative behaviours. On the contrary,the positive polarity of the socialmindedness dimension translates a goodpractice related to the involved dimension.The subjective incidents are special. Infact, in these situations the evaluationmade by the player is not based upon anobjective distinction (as in negative orpositive incidents is). In order to find outthese incidents the player must decidetheir meaning with a subjective decision.The players get extra points for speed. Theplayer gets extra points for adding thecorrect incidents to the file (makinggood choices). In order to maintain theskilfulness of a web-based game the playerhas to select only the negative incidents tobe added to the folder files and discussedin the second phase of the game (councilmeeting). 16. The polarities of the incidents aredifferentiated in every mission. Forexample, in mission one the player willdeal with (as showed by the followingtable) three negative dimensions(membership,familyhabits,cooperation) and two positivedimensions(interdependenceandinteractive dynamics). In mission 2 wehave, on the contrary, three positiveincidents (related to membership,family habits and cooperation) and twonegatives incidents (interdependenceand interactive dynamics).The sixth incident of any mission isbasedupona subjectiveinterpretation of the incident made bythe player. The subjective incidents areformulated taking into considerationthe social mindedness dimensions. So inthe first mission (Johnny Smithson andLucy) the contested incident isrelated to membership dimension, inthe second mission (mrs Kowalska) thecontested incident is related tocooperation dimension. Consideringthat there are 4 missions and 5 socialmindedness dimensions the dimensionsinteractive dynamicsandinterdependence will be merged in asingle contested event.