specific learning disabilities group presentation eced 2060
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Specific Learning DisabilitiesGroup presentationECED 2060
What is a learning disability? A learning disability is a disorder that interferes with the ability to learn efficiently and effectively.
It is estimated that 5% to 20% of school-aged children in the United States have some sort of learning disability.
It is also estimated that of the children who have a learning disability, 60% to 80% have reading as their main area of need.
Further, it is estimated that the prevalence of specific learning disability among children who are eligible for IDEA (ages 6 21) is 52.4%.
Basic Information continued Learning disabilities affect boys four times more often than girls. (WHY?)
Learning disability is not the same as mental retardation. Many children with LD are very bright.
The term learning disabilities was coined by Samuel Kirk, an educator, in 1963. His concept of learning disabilities was defined by delays, deviations, and performance discrepancies in basic academic subjects (math, reading, spelling, writing) and speech and language problems not attributable to mental retardation.
IDEA definition:A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning disabilities which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
DSM definition:Diagnostic criteria for reading disorder:Reading achievement as measured by individually administered standardized tests of reading accuracy or comprehension is substantially below that expected given the persons chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education.The disturbance above significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require reading skillsIf sensory deficit is present, the reading difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it.
DSMDiagnostic criteria for Mathematics Disorder:Mathematical ability, as measured by individually administered standardized tests, is substantially below that expected given the persons chronological age, measured intelligence, and age appropriate educationThe disturbance above significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require mathematical ability.If a sensory deficit is present, the difficulties in mathematical abilities are in excess of those usually associated with it.
DSMDiagnostic criteria for disorder of written expressionWriting skills, as measured by individually administered standardized tests (or functional assessments of writing skills) are substantially below those expected given the persons chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance above significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require the composition of written texts (e.g., writing grammatically correct sentences and organized paragraphs.If a sensory deficit is present, the difficulties in writing skills are in excess of those usually associated with it.
Common characteristics of learning disabilities:Specific academic skills deficits:Basic reading skills (learning letter names and sounds, blending, applying phonetic and structured analysis)Reading comprehensionWritingWritten expressionSpellingMathematical calculationMathematical reasoning
Characteristics (possible )Perceptual motor impairments:Difficulty distinguishing shapes and sizesLack established handednessLetter, word, number reversals Difficulty with fine motor skillsWritingColoringCutting
Characteristics Possible Common Memory and thinking disorders: Deficient in memory strategiesHaphazard in approaches to learningPoor language skills, which hinder memoryDifficulty with short-term auditory and visual memoryLack of awareness of skills and strategies needed to solve problems and solve tasks
Characteristics Speech and language disorders:Delayed language developmentDifficulty with grammar (syntax), meaning (semantics), or social use (pragmatics) of language
Attention DisordersDifficulty concentratingDifficulty remaining on taskRarely finish what is startedJump from one activity to anotherEasily distracted
Common characteristics:HyperactivityDifficulty sitting stillConstantly in motionFidgetyDriven by an inner motorImpulsivenessAct without thinkingPoor planning and organizational skillsRespond quickly but make many errorsLack self-regulation skills
Even more characteristics (possible) Emotional liabilityMoodyOften isolated or rejected by peersLow self-esteemMore likely to violate social normsInappropriate ways to get attentionElicit more negative reactions from othersLacking in social cognition skillsDifficulty reading non-verbal cuesDifficulty with motivationPassive rather than active learner
Characteristics, almost doneGeneral Coordination DeficitsClumsyDifficulty with fine and gross motor skills (tying shoes, running, hopping, skipping)Difficulty with depth perceptionNeurological Soft SignsPoor fine motor coordination, balance, tactile discrimination.May have strabismus Poor visual-motor coordination
Characteristics (the end of )Miscellaneous others:ForgetfulnessLong time to complete tasks and assignmentsSloppiness in workDifficulty working independentlyInattentivenessTrouble switching between activitiesImpulsiveLow tolerance for frustrationDaydreamingSad, angry
Possible causes of learning disabilities Neurological factors: may be caused by certain irregularities in brain developmentMaturational delayGenetic factors: a person is more likely to have learning disabilities if someone in his or her family also has learning disabilities.
Causes, possible Environmental factors: sensory deprivation; head trauma; diseases; malnutrition; lead poisoning; food additives; radiation; fluorescent lighting; stress Perinatal insults or conditions: maternal smoking, drinking, use of illicit drugs; exposure to infections; trauma during birth; low birth weight; anoxia; prematurity; use of forcepsNo cause is sure. Mostly the cause is unknown.
Disorders in the category:DyslexiaDyscalculiaDysgraphiaCentral Auditory Processing DisorderNonverbal Learning DisabilityDyspraxiaVerbal Perceptual DeficitsVision Motor DeficitsLanguage Disorders (Aphasia or dysphasia)
Videos. You Tube. Can you dig it?The Power Of Dyslexia about Famous DyslexicsDyscalculia 1 2 3 many
Local Resources for Families and EducatorsChild and Family Tennessee, Knoxville: http://www.child-family.org/Family Resource Center, Vanderbilt Childrens Hospital: http://www.vanderbiltchildrens.org/interior.php?mid=560International Dyslexia Association, Tennessee Branch: http://www.tn-interdys.org/Learning Disabilities Association of Tennessee: http://www.learningdisabilities-tn.org/Parent-Child Services Group, Inc.: http://www.parent-childservices.com/Tennessee Center for Study and Treatment of Dyslexia: http://dyslexia.mtsu.edu/Tennessee Voices for Children, Middle Tennessee: http://www.tnvoices.org/index.php?q=esNational Resources for Families and EducatorsNational Center for Learning Disabilities: http://www.ncld.org/Learning Disabilities Association of America: http://www.ldanatl.org/
Out of the box
Calvin and Hobbes
DysgraphiaWrite your name and address with your non-preferred hand.Write your name in mirror images with both hands at once.Write your name at the same time with both hands in the same direction.Which was the easiest?