stages of development of western europe during middle ages

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Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages. Chapter 10 (1 of 4). What were the Middle Ages?. Middle Ages = Term for western Europe during the Postclassical Era (A.P. World Historys 3 rd time period). Middle Ages began with the fall of Rome (476) and ended in the 1400s. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages

Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle AgesChapter 10 (1 of 4)What were the Middle Ages?Middle Ages = Term for western Europe during the Postclassical Era (A.P. World Historys 3rd time period)If you see the term the West = western Europe (later includes America)The Middle Ages are also called the Dark AgesMiddle Ages began with the fall of Rome (476) and ended in the 1400sThe Early Middle Ages (450-900)First part of Middle Ages = western Europe had many problems and considered backwardsEventually, western Europe would recover and advance rapidly, but that wasnt until the later part of the Middle Ages (after 900 C.E.)Italy was struggling after the fall of Rome and Spain was ruled by MuslimsEarly Middle Ages = Western Europe WeakWestern Europe often invaded, making it hard to advanceVikings = Scandinavian raiders, invaded Europe between 700s and 1000sLiteracy Low In Early Middle AgesFor the most part, only the clergy and people in monasteries were literate, and they helped to preserve classic learningManor System

Manor SystemManorialism = economic and political system b/t landlords and their peasants

Manor System (Feudalism) increased due to a lack of trade during early part of the Middle Ages

A Serfs LifeSerfs = most peasants, who were farmers, lived on self-sufficient estates called manors, got protection from lord (noble) in return for part of their goodMoldboard Plow = new plow that could get through heavy soil Serf life was difficult: agricultural technology low and production low (had to spend many days repairing caste or working on lords land)Not slaves (couldnt be bought and sold) owned land as long as obligations met

Three-Field System = crop rotation leaving less land unused

Though limited, some new technology did helpThe ChurchAfter the fall of Rome, the church was the only strong form of organization (governments weak)Pope sponsored missions (converted England, Germany, parts of eastern Europe) to Christianity

ClovisGerman warrior who converted to Christianity in 496 and got control over the Franks (German tribe living where France is today)

The Role of MonasteriesMany monasteries built during the Middle Ages, and they played a big role in medieval societyMonasteries showed the spiritual focus of medieval society and promoted education and literacyCharles The Hammer MartelRuler of the Franks (he was from the Carolingian family)Defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours (732) stopping Muslim advance into western EuropeCharlemagneLater Carolingian ruler who established empire in France and Germany around 800, called Holy Roman EmpireLooked like glory of Rome would be revived, but never occurredCharlemagneWestern Europe became series of regional monarchies with weak kings (aristocracy powerful)After Charlemagnes death in 814, empire split into 3 sections (France, Germany, Low Countries) so each of his sons could have oneMost powerful of these regional monarchies in Germany and northern Italy Europe DividedCulturally western Europe was united through Catholicism, but politically it was very divided

No single language in western Europe (Latin was language of church, but spoken language was French, English, etc)

Things Turn Around Year 900

Agricultural Innovations such as themoldboard plow, three-field system, horse collar, and stirrups

Viking raids began stopping in the 900s

This led to population growth, which led to economic innovation and the growth of cities and townsEconomic GrowthMore people meant more markets, trade grewHarsh serfdom still existed, but serfs gaining more freedomFeudal system weakened as towns grew (demand for peasant labor increased and landlords needed to entice them by giving them more freedom (now charged rent)A commercial, market-based economy began to exist in western EuropeGrowth of Towns and CitiesTowns and cities grew rapidly especially in ItalyAsia still had more in cities than western Europe, but they were growing in western EuropeLiteracy spread in urban centers, as did use of vernacular (spoken) languages, like French and EnglishMerchant activity and craft production grewUniversities GrowChurch based schools formed in 800s

By 1000s, first universities created they trained middle class in the cities in theology, medicine, and law

By 1100s, modern universities emerge throughout western Europe (such as Oxford and Cambridge in England)Getting Back to the Feudal System

Began by 500s

Originally very local (lords had 5-10 vassals) but could span over large areas or kingdoms (such as Charlemagnes Holy Roman Empire)

Feudalism hurt development of strong monarchies (feudal lords had power) but it reduced local warfare

Kings used feudalism to build power (France started as feudal lords near Paris who gradually expanded and built monarchy)William the ConquerorSet up a central monarchy with a bureaucracy to help rule

Led the Norman (from Normandy, France) invasion of England in 1066, extending feudal system to EnglandFeudal MonarchiesGrowth of feudal monarchies similar to China both extensive bureaucraciesTo extend power, feudal monarchies hired professional armies, and hired businessmen to run bureaucraciesLimited GovernmentStrong monarchies didnt develop across Europe, as regional states and feudal lords still had much powerEx: Magna Carta and King John (1215) forced to give up power (couldnt add new taxes w/out parliaments okParliament = legislative body representing 3 privileged estates (church, nobles, urban leaders) not commonersHundred Years War (1337-1453)War fought between France and EnglandLed to decline of feudal system (monarchs) saw that feudal militaries (which did most of fighting) werent too effective, and a paid was army betterSince nobles military power no longer needed, feudal system began fading away

Western Europeans Crave ExpansionThe CrusadesThe Crusades were the biggest expansionist movementUrban II Pope who ordered 1st CrusadeLasting impact of Crusades was West being exposed to Middle Eastern culture

Religious Reform

Church officials often caught up in politics, hurting churchInvestiture practice of government appointing bishops, Gregory VII fought Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV on this issue and wonReform movements began to remove this secularism from the church and rid church of interference of feudal lordsBegan Western idea of separation of church and stateGregory VII Pope (1073-1085) reformed church

Height of Medieval CivilizationMedieval Western civilization reached its peak in the 1100s and the 1200sMerchant activity was growing and the feudal system was slowly dying out