the legacy of world war ii

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The Legacy of World War II. The Cold War. Europe After WWII. “What is Europe now? A rubble heap, a charnel house, a breeding ground of pestilence and hate.” - Winston Churchill 4x the casualties of WWII than WWI 60 million people died (15-25 million in USSR alone ) Flattened cities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Russian Revolution and the Interwar Years

The Legacy of World War IIThe Cold War

Europe After WWIIWhat is Europe now? A rubble heap, a charnel house, a breeding ground of pestilence and hate. - Winston Churchill

4x the casualties of WWII than WWI60 million people died (15-25 million in USSR alone)Flattened citiescrippled industryMillions of refugees (DPs, or displaced persons)

Changes since Yalta (Feb. 45) . . . Soviet Union occupying Central & Eastern EuropeBritain had new Prime Minister (Atlee)America had a new President (Truman)War in the Pacific was endingU.S. had tested an atomic bomb (a secret???)a new weapon of unusually destructive force- Tested in New Mexico on July 16, 1945Potsdam ConferenceJuly 17 Aug 2, 1945Big Three, againUS (Truman, FDR died)USSR (Stalin)G.B. (Churchill & Clement Atlee)GoalsPunish Germanyrestore orderpeace treatiescounter effects of war

The Reality of Potsdam

HEAVY disagreements4 zones of occupationRussia gets reparations from Soviet Zone, plus moreCommunist (Soviet) power spreading in Eastern Europe

The Buffer ZoneUSSR attacked in both WWI & II and suffer heavy casualtiesThey desire a buffer zone = Eastern EuropeStalin promises to respect the rights of free governments in that region

A freely elected government in any of these East European countries would be anti-Soviet and that we cannot allow. - Stalin

The Iron CurtainAn Iron Curtain has descended across Europe Churchill (Missouri, 1946)Means that the Eastern Europeans have turned to communism due to Soviet influence (no free elections after all)Danger to all of EuropeRegarded as beginning of Cold War

Iron Curtain speechWhy is it called the Cold War?Never an open attack between the US & USSR (no real fighting)

The whole problem is the US doesnt want communism to spread, and the USSR does

US Response to the Iron CurtainTruman Doctrine US promises to help any country under threat of communismContainment Policy of stopping spread of CommunismMarshall Plan US pumps billions into Europe to help recover from WWIIAlso, helps keep other countries from possibly going communist

USSR Response to US Marshall PlanCOMECONCouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance

Berlin CrisisProblem in Berlinlocated in East Germany, partly under Soviet ControlFrench, British and US zones combine to form West Germany (democratic)Also want to combine zones in BerlinUSSR says NO!

Berlin continuedUSSR cuts off East Berlin from all aid and assistance provided by Marshall PlanEast Berliners want to escape, Soviets say NO!US responds with Berlin Airlift dropping packages from the sky to help the peopleUSSR calls off blockade in May 1949

Results of Berlin CrisisWestern Zones (US, GB, France) become West GermanyEastern Zone (USSR) becomes East GermanyNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO Alliance against Communism (1949)Warsaw Pact Communist Alliance (1955)

Arms RaceArms Race struggle between USSR and USA to gain advantage in weaponsBoth have the hydrogen bomb more powerful than atomic bombLeads to policy of deterrence or using a policy of having more weapons to scare the enemy into not attacking

Space RaceUSA and USSR are competing in everything that is technological1957 - USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial satelliteUSA response creation of NASA in 1958

Western European Growth (despite Cold War)Unity politically, culturally, & economicallyEconomic growth & stabilityInternational Monetary Fund & World BankPolitical unitySocialists, communists, Christian DemocratsConsumer RevolutionRace to have best standard of living

Life in the Soviet East BlocNew East Bloc states remade on Soviet modelDictatorshipIndoctrinationNo civil libertiesTop priority to industry & militaryCensors promoted anti-Western ideals

De-Stalinization of USSRStalin dies in 1953Soviet Communists agree reform is needed Nikita Khrushchev takes over (1957) & liberalizes USSR Controls over workers relaxedAllows for modest consumer growth cars, TVs, etc.Slightly raises standard of living through 1960s

Peaceful CoexistenceKhrushchev believed in peaceful coexistence with capitalism (Western countries)Cold War relaxesDe-Stalinization = rebellionsPolish rebellion (1956)Hungarian/Budapest Uprising (1956)Briefly removed Soviet rule, only to be invaded & crushed2700 Hungarians died

The Berlin Wall & Fall of KhrushchevEast Berliners fleeing to West BerlinKhrushchev demands wall be build to stop them, & to scare West (but it doesnt)Khrushchev starts to lose power

Leonid Brezhnev takes over in bloodless coup 1964USSR re-Stalinizes

Cold War Thaws in1960s & 70sDespite tensions, Cold War stable after 1961Except, Soviets crushing thePrague SpringCzechoslovakia tried to free themselves in 1968Soviet troops stayed until 1987Fear ofMutually Assured Destructionprevented conflictDtente relaxation of Cold War tensions

Cold War Tensions Thaw contdOstpolitikWest German Chancellor Willy Brandts planSought closer ties with EastHope of more thaw & future reunificationPushed treaties with EastOther nations follow

The Cold War in the 80sBy the 1980s, Soviets appeared to be winningmore productive economybetter missiles growing navyeven though system was corrupt and built on propagandaAmerica moved to re-arm and build up forcesUS President Reagan increased defense spendingEnds Mutually Assured DestructionBeginning of the End of the Cold WarBrezhnev dies in 1982, change needs to happenMikhail Gorbachev takes over in 1985Glasnost andPerestroika= massive reform of economics, politics & cultureGlasnost = openness, allowed freedom of speech and the media to air grievancesPerestroika = reconstruction, re-ordering of the Soviet Union More democratic processes were installed in the party and government, better technology too

Middle of the End of the Cold WarIn 1988, Gorbachev addresses UNAllows democratic choice in Soviet statesStops arms raceWithin 2 years, these states set-up democratic govts (Poland, Hungary, East Germany, etc.)Soviets dont stop themFall of the Berlin Wall!Gorbachev earns1990 Nobel Prize

The END of the Cold WarUSSR still faces problemsGorbachev has trouble fixing them, and angers hard communistsGorbachev steps down on Dec. 25, 1991USSR no longer existsNow, Russian Federation with Boris Yeltsinas leader


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