the octet rule
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DESCRIPTIONThe Octet Rule. Noble Gases: the happiest elements. Happy atoms have a full outer energy level of electrons. They rarely combine with other elements. Nonreactivity is why they are called noble or inert. Octet Rule. An octet is 8 valence electrons - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Octet Rule
1Happy atoms have a full outer energy level of electrons.They rarely combine with other elements.Nonreactivity is why they are called noble or inert.
Noble Gases: the happiest elementsAn octet is 8 valence electrons
is associated with the stability of the noble gases (does not occur with He; He is stable with 2 valence electrons) Valence ElectronsHe 2Ne 8 Ar 8 Kr 8In order to achieve an octet, elements will form ions.
Octet Rule3Metals want to be happy.Metals form cations
by losing their valence electronsresemble the nearest noble gashave fewer electrons than protons Group 1 metals ion 1+Group 2 metals ion 2+Group 3 metals ion 3+4Formation of a Sodium Ion, Na+Sodium achieves an octet by losing its one valence electron.
Charge of Sodium Ion, Na+With the loss of its valenceelectron, a sodium ion has a 1+charge.
Sodium atom Sodium ion 11p+ 11p+ 11e 10e 0 1 +6Formation of Magnesium Ion, Mg2+Magnesium achieves an octet by losing its two valence electrons.
Charge of Magnesium Ion, Mg2+With the loss of two valenceelectrons magnesium forms apositive ion with a 2+ charge.
Mg atom Mg2+ ion 12p+12p+ 12e 10e 0 2+8Nonmetals want to be happy too.Nonmetals form anions
gain electronshave more electrons than protonsform negatively charged ions with 3, 2, or 1 charges9Formation of a Chloride Ion, ClChlorine achieves an octet by adding an electron to its valence electrons.
10Charge of a Chloride Ion, ClBy gaining one electron, the chloride ion has a 1 charge.
Chlorine atom Chloride ion 17p+ 17p+ 17e 18e 0 1