the renaissance

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The Renaissance English


  • 1.The Renaissance Renaissance means rebirth. A movement in Europe between 14 thand 17 thCentury.

2. Byzantine Empire

  • The year 1453 marked a change in history of the world.
  • Constantinople was captured by Turks.
  • This was the dividing line between the Medieval period and Modern World.
  • The Greeks and Roman Scholars migrated to Italy, where Renaissance first took its roots.

3. The Capture 4. End of Byzantine Empire 5. Causes of Renaissance

  • Spread of Education
  • The Emergence of Cathedral churches like Paris, Padua, Naples, Oxford and Cambridge created new thinking and learning.

6. 2. Decline of feudalism

  • The feudal system was opposed to progress. The feudal lords could not increase the rents from their subordinates and had to borrow money to maintain themselves. They had to sell off their lands to pay their debts. This led to break up of fedualism.

7. 3. Spirit of Enquiry

  • The Church controlled all the education. This Knowledge was accepted without questioning. Scholars like Roger Bacon and Peter Abelard challenged the authority of Church.

8. 4. The Crusades

  • The crusades are the wars fought between Christians and Muslims.
  • It was during this time that Christians studied the Philosophies of Plato and Aristotle.
  • It gave way to modern thinking.

9. 5. Encouragement to Art and Learning

  • The encouragementgiven to Art and learning was by Popes, Emperors, Kings and rich merchants.
  • Lorenzo de Medici gave patronage in Florence in the 15 thcentury.
  • This city becamea great centre of art and learning.

10. 6. Printing Press

  • The printing press enabled Europe to multiply books and then put them within the reach of scholars with modest means.
  • Johann Gutenberg introduced the first printing press in Germany in 1455.

11. 7.Capture of Constantinople by the Turks.

  • It is said that the fall of Constantinople is a
  • Blessing in disguise as many progressive
  • ideas spread in Europe and brought about
  • changes in all spheres of human life.

12. 8. New Discoveries.

  • After the fall of Constantinople the trade of the West with the East became Impossible.So the Kings encouraged to discover new Sea routes. The Contacts with the East developed as Sailors like Columbus and Vasco da Gama set sail.


  • Literaturegave a new Impact on the lives of the people.
  • In MarlowesTamburlaine , the protagonist yearns to conquer the whole world.
  • InHamlet , Shakespeare Voices the New man- What a piece of work is man.

14. Humanism

  • Literature led to a new form of life in this world called as Renaissance Humanism.
  • Humanism is a movement in literature where Man is the center of all thoughts.
  • All literature revolved around Man to know this human being better.

15. The Famous Texts.

  • Famous Texts were
  • Divine Comedy by Dante (1265 1321)
  • written in Italian language.
  • The Advancement of learningby
  • Francis Bacon(1552 -1599)


  • The Renaissance painters looked upon Art as imitation of life. They closely observed Nature and Man. Art provided pleasure to the Senses. The artists painted human figures as more beautiful than they actually were. The artists later involved Christian themes to secular themes called as the Greco Roman Style.

17. The Greco Roman Style

  • The Greco roman style was in keeping with the Humanist movement.

18. Leonardo da Vinci(1452 -1519)

  • Leonardo da Vinci was the greatest of all renaissance artists. He not only studied the anatomy of the Human body but also the different parts of the body that took shape when it moved. This enabled him to depict accurately the bodily movements.

19. Leonardo da Vinci 20. Paintings

  • Mona Lisa The Last Supper

21. Paintings

  • The Last Supper is a study of psychological reactions.
  • Christ knows his fate of being Crucified and announces that one of his disciples will betray him. This painting depicts the emotions of surprise, horror and guilt on the face of Jesus followers.

22. Paintings

  • Mona Lisa is a painting of an actual
  • woman which reflects the various moods
  • of human soul.

23. Raphael (1483 1520)

  • Raphael ennobled humanism in his paintings. His famous painting of Madonna, depicts the mother of Jesus Christ.

24. Michelangelo (1475 -1564)

  • Michelangelo is known for his paintings
  • Last JudgementandThe Fall .

25. The last Judgement 26. IMPACT ON SCULPTURE

  • One of the main features of Sculpture during
  • the Renaissance was that sculptures were
  • not directly carved on the walls, in fact they
  • stood apart from the building as separate
  • and independent work of art.

27. Sculptures

  • The first great master of Renaissance sculpture was Donatello (1368 1466). His bronze statue of David was the first freestanding nude statue in the world of Art.

28. The Statue of David.

  • The statue of David is about 13 feet tall, depicting self confident affirmation of the beauty of human form.

29. Michelangelos Sculpture

  • In his Sculpture
  • Descent from the cross
  • a depiction of the Virgin
  • Mary grieving over the
  • body of the dead Christ
  • is shown.

30. Roger Bacon (1214 -1294)

  • He emphasized the need for scientific observation and experimentation in the advancement of Knowledge. He followed the principle ofreason, observationandexperimentationfor progress.

31. Copernicus (1473 -1543)

  • Nicholas Copernicus was a great scientist of Poland. He gave new astronomical principles which shocked the Church. His principle was that the EARTH is round and it moves around the sun, which is the centre of the planetary system. This theory was know as Copernican Theory.

32. The Copernican Theory 33. Kepler (1571 -1630)

  • Johannes Kepler , a German Scientist
  • improved upon the theory of Copernicus
  • and proved that the planets including
  • Earth revolve around the Sun in
  • ELLIPTICAL orbits and not in Circles.

34. Keplers Model 35. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 -1727)

  • Sir Isaac Newton continued
  • the work started by Kepler
  • and proved that
  • heavenly bodies
  • move according
  • to the
  • Law of Gravitation.

36. Galileo (1564 -1642)

  • The Italian Scientist Galileo studied the Solar system and perfected the Copernican theory. Galileo used histelescopein his studies and confirmed his Observations. He discovered the Law of Pendulum and the principle that the speed of a falling body depends upon the distance it falls.

37. Galileo

  • He also Invented the thermometer and improved thetelescope.

38. Vesalius (1514 -1564)

  • Vesalius, a physician
  • wrote a treatise on
  • Anatomy after studying
  • various organs of the
  • body. He discarded false
  • beliefs and superstitions
  • regarding the functioning
  • of the human body .

39. Halley

  • Halley forecast the
  • appearance of a comet
  • in 1682,which was
  • named later on as
  • Halleys comet.
  • He proved that a
  • comet is not an ill
  • omen foretelling
  • a disastrous event.

40. Harvey (1478 -1657)

  • William Harvey, an English physician showed how the Human body depends on circulation of blood. He discovered how blood circulates from the heart to the various parts of the body through arteries and comes back to the heart through veins. This knowledge helped to correctmany problems related to health.

41. Harvey 42. Geographical explorations

  • After the crusades, the Europeans became interested in the East, largerly through the travel accounts of travellers and traders who had travelled through Constantinople. The trade especially in spices was very profitable. If the Europeans were to continue to have spices and other goods, they had to find out new sea routes. Portugal and Spain were the pioneers in the Quest.

43. Some Developments

  • There were some developments in the techniques of navigation which facilitated geographical discoveries.
  • The Mariners Compass Had a magnetic needle and was useful for navigation.
  • The classical idea that Earth is a GLOBE came from the Greeks.
  • There was improvement in shipbuilding and accurate Map- making for voyages to take place.

44. Major Explorations

  • Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco da

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