tqm classic tools
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Seven Classic TQM tools (Old)_
Pareto Chart Description
A simple rule, pareto, 20 % issues causes 80 % results. This means, 80 % if problems
come from 20 of reasons. 80 % of results come from 20% of work. 80% of cost come from
20% of spent area...and so on.
When to Use
Use it when there are many problems or opportunities and you want to focus on the most
important. Or when your analyzing data about the frequency of problems or causes in a
Constructing a Pareto chart:
1-Decide the categories to compare. For example, you want to know where you spent your
money. You could select these categories food, gas, telephone, personal care, etc.
2-Determine the appropriate measurement. Common measurements include frequency,
quantity, cost and time.
3-Decide the period of time for the chart.
4-In a table, collect the data for each category. For the example, track how much you
spent in each category over the week. Calculate the total sum of the money for each
5-Arrange the categories in descending way per the total sums.
6-Construct and label bars for each category. Place the tallest bar at the far left,
then the next tallest to it is right and so on.
7-Calculate the percentage for each category: Percentage is the total for that
category divided by the total for all categories times 100. Draw a left vertical axis
and label it with frequency.
8-Calculate and draw cumulative percentage: Add the subtotals for the first and
second categories percentage. Place a dot above the second bar indicating that
sum. To that sum add the subtotal for the third category, and place a dot above the
third bar for that new sum. Continue for all bars. Connect the dots, starting at the
top of the first bar. The last dot should reach 100 percent on the right scale. Pareto
diagram, Pareto analysis Analysis of the Pareto Chart Examine the first two to three bars. Look at the cumulative sum of the percentages. These
willl be close to 80%. When addressing issues or root causes, these are the items to focus on. The remaining bars do not contribute significantly. These first couple of bars represent the key 20% of the issues. After addressing the first two bars, recalculate the pareto chart. This process of solving the first bars and repeating significantly drives improvement.
One of the Total Quality Management Tools is the Histogram.
One uses this graph to show frequency distributions. It looks very much like a bar chart.
When to Use:
This chart graphs data distributions. If you have numerical, variable, continuous data you
can use the this chart. The chart organizes and sorts the data. It shows the data in a
• Collect at least 50 data points from a process.
• Use the worksheet below to set up the chart. It helps you determine the number of bars,
the width of the bar, and the labels for the bar edges.
• After calculating width in step 2 of the worksheet, use your judgment and adjust it to a
convenient round number. For example, you might decide to round 0.9 to an even 1.0. The
value for W may not have more decimal places than any number in your data set.
• Draw x- and y-axes on graph paper. Mark and label the y-axis for counting the data
values. Mark and label the x-axis with the L values from the worksheet. The spaces between
these numbers will create the bars. Do not allow for spaces between bars.
• For each data point, locate it where it fits within the Ls. Mark off one count above the
appropriate bar with an X or by shading that portion of the bar.
• Consider this simple example. Below shows the exam results collected from a
training class of 50 individuals:
Below is the chart. The center of the data shows about 69. The average is probably
near 69. Construct these bar charts to provide a useful picture of your data.
Fish Bone Diagram aso called: Cause-and-Effect Diagram or Ishikawa Diagram
The Cause and Effect diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or a
problem. Your team can used this to structure a brainstorming session because it
immediately sorts ideas into key categories. When to Use • When your figuring out the possible factors for a problem. • When your team’s thinking hits a roadblock.
1- Agree on the problem (effect). Write it at the center right (Fish Head) of the
flipchart or whiteboard. Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running
2- Brainstorm the possible major categories of causes of the problem (5M and 1E).
• Machines (equipment)
• Manpower (People)
3- Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow.
4- Brainstorm all the possible factors for each of the major categories. Ask: “Why
does this happen?” As each element is given, write it as a branch from the
appropriate category (5M ). Causes can be written in several places if they relate to
5- Again ask “why does this happen?” about each branch from step 4. Write sub-
causes branching off the causes. Continue to ask “Why?” and generate deeper
levels of causes. Layers of branches indicate relationships.
6 After completion, have the team review the diagram. Identify elements that need
to be investigated. Circle those items and assign investigation action items to the
Process Flow Chart Description:
The Process Flow Chart provides a visual representation of the steps in a process.
When to Use:
One of the first activities of a process improvement effort is constructing a
flowchart. It provides the following benefits:
1- It give you and everyone a clear understanding of the process.
2- Facilitates teamwork and communication.
3- Helps to identify non-value-added operations.
There are many symbols used to construct a flowchart; the more common
symbols are shown below:
Identify the process steps and link them together with direction arrows.
Following is an example of a very simple flowchart for the process of getting out of
bed in the morning:
Check Points Description: A Check points is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing attribute data. You can use this generic tool wide variety of purposes. This tool is also called tally sheet . When to Use : • When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location. • When collecting data on the same frequency or patterns of events, problems, defects, defect location, defect causes, etc. Procedure: 1. Decide the observed event or problem. (for example telephone interruptions) 2. Determine the collected data and for how long. (lets say 5 days) 3. Design the form. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by making check marks . 4. Label all spaces on the form. 5. Each time the targeted event or problem occurs, record a check mark on the check sheet. Example: The figure below shows a check sheet used to collect data on telephone interruptions. The talley marks were added as the operator collected data over one week.
Description: Use a Scatter Diagram to investigate the possible relationship between two variables that both relate to the same event. When to Use: When you have paired numerical data. When trying to identify potential root causes of problems. After brainstorming causes and effects using a fishbone diagram. To objectively determine the relationship between a particular cause and effect. When determining whether two effects that appear to be related both occur because of the same cause. Procedure: 1. Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected. 2. Draw the scatter diagram with the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis. For each pair of data, put a dot or a symbol where the x‐axis value intersects the y‐axis value. (If two dots fall together, put them side by side, touching, so that you can see both.) 3. As in the below graph, Look at the pattern of points for a obvious relationship. If the data clearly form a line or a curve, you may stop. The variables are correlated. You may wish to use regression or correlation analysis now. Otherwise, complete steps 4 through 7.
4. Divide points on the graph into four quadrants. Let X be the number of points on the graph. 5. Count X/2 points from top to bottom and draw a horizontal line. 6. Count X/2 points from left to right and draw a vertical line. 7. If number of points is odd, draw the line through the middle point. 8. Count the points in each quadrant. Do not count points on a line. 9. Add the diagonally opposite quadrants. Find the smaller sum and the total of points in all quadrants. 10. A = points in upper left + points in lower right 11. B = points in upper right + points in lower left 12. Q = the smaller of A and B 13. N = A + B 14. Look up the limit for N on the below trend test scatter diagram table.
15. If Q is less than the limit, the two variables are related. 16. If Q is greater than or equal to the limit, the pattern occurred from random chance.
Control charts are graphs used to study how a process changes over time.
Data is plotted in time order. A control chart always has a central line for the
average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower
control limit. These three lines are determined from historical data. By comparing
current data to these lines, you can draw conclusions about whether the process
variation is consistent (in control) or is unpredictable (out of control, affected by
special causes of variation).
Variable data uses two control charts. The top chart monitors the average, or the
centering of the distribution of data from the process. The bottom chart monitors
the range, or the width of the distribution.
If your data were shots in target practice, the average shows the shots clustering.
The range shows how tight they are clustered.
When to Use:
• When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they
• When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process.
• When determining whether a process is stable (in statistical control).
• When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine
events) or common causes (built into the process).
• When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to
prevent specific problems or to make fundamental changes to the process.
1. Choose the appropriate control chart for your data.
2. Determine the appropriate time period for collecting and plotting data.
3. Collect data, construct your chart and analyze the data.
4. Look for “out-of-control signals” on the control chart. When one is identified,
mark it on the chart and investigate the cause. Document how you investigated,
the root cause and how it was corrected.
o A single point outside the control limits. In above figure, point sixteen is above
the UCL (upper control limit).
o Two out of three successive points are on the same side of the centerline and
farther than 2 sigma from it. Point 4 sends that signal.
o Four out of five successive points are on the same side of the centerline and
farther than 1 sigma from it. Point 11 sends that signal.
o A run of eight in a row are on the same side of the centerline. Or 10 out of 11,
12 out of 14 or 16 out of 20. Point 21 is eighth in a row above the centerline.
o Obvious consistent or persistent patterns that suggest something unusual about
your data and your process.
o Continue to plot data as you collect data. As each new data point is plotted,
check for new out-of-control signals.
o When you start a new control chart, the process may be out of control. If so, the
control limits calculated from the first 20 points are conditional limits. When you
have at least 20 sequential points within control, recalculate the control limits.
Different types of control charts
The the type of chart depends on your measurement data. The two broadest
groupings are for variable data and attribute data.
• Variable data are measured on a continuous scale. For example: time, weight,
distance or temperature can be measured in fractions or decimals. The possibility of
measuring to greater precision defines variable data.
• Attribute data are counted and cannot have fractions or decimals. Attribute data
arise when you count the presence or absence of something: success or failure,
accept or reject, correct or not correct. For example, a report can have four errors
or five errors, but it cannot have four and a half errors.
Types of Variables charts:
o –X and R chart (also called average and range chart)
o –X and S chart
o chart of individuals (also called X chart, X-R chart, IX-MR chart, Xm R chart,
moving range chart)
o moving average–moving range chart (also called MA–MR chart)
o target charts (also called difference charts, deviation charts and nominal charts)
o CUSUM (also called cumulative sum chart)
o EWMA (also called exponentially weighted moving average chart)
o Multivariate chart (also called Hotelling T2)
Types of Attributes charts
o p chart (also called proportion chart)
o np chart
o c chart (also called count chart)
o u chart
How to choose control chart
TQM 7 tools ( New)
Basic Management & Planning tools
Activity Network Diagram
Description : An activity network Diagram is also called: arrow diagram, network
diagram, activity chart, node diagram, CPM (critical path method) chart or PERT
(program evaluation and review technique) chart .
When to Use:
• When scheduling and monitoring
tasks within a project or process
with several dependant tasks and
• When you know the steps of the
project or process, their sequence
and how long each step takes.
• When your project schedule is critical. There is a serious consequences for
completing the project late or a significant advantage to completing the project
Drawing the Activity Network Diagram Procedure :
1. List all the necessary tasks in the project or process. One convenient method is
to write each task on the top half of a notecard or a sticky note. Then across the
middle of the card, draw a horizontal arrow pointing right.
2. Determine the correct sequence of the tasks. Do this by asking three questions
for each task:
o Which tasks must happen before this one begins?
o Which tasks can be done at the same time as this one?
o Which tasks should happen immediately after this one?
It can be useful to create a table with four columns —prior tasks, this task,
simultaneous tasks, following tasks.
3. Diagram the network of tasks. If you are using sticky notes or notecards,
arrange them in sequence on a large piece of paper. For the activity network
diagram, time should flow from left to right and concurrent tasks should be
vertically aligned. Leave space between the cards.
4. Between each two tasks, draw circles for “events.” An event marks the
beginning or end of a task. Thus, events are nodes that separate tasks.
5. Look for the three common problem situations noted below. Redraw them using
“dummies” or extra events. Characterize a dummy with a dotted line arrow.
Dummies are not real tasks.
• Two simultaneous tasks start and end at the same events.
Solution: Use a dummy and an extra event to separate them.
In Figure 1 , event 2 and the dummy between 2 and 3 have
been added to separate tasks A and B.
• Task C cannot start until both tasks A and B arecomplete; a
fourth task, D, cannot start until A is complete, but need not
wait for B. (See Figure 2.)
Solution: Use a dummy between the end of task A and the
beginning of task C.
• A second task can be started before part of a
first task is done.
Solution: Add an extra event where the second task can begin and use multiple
arrows to break the first task into two subtasks. In Figure 3, event 2 was added,
splitting task A.
7. Determine task times—the best estimate of the time that each task should
require. Use one measuring unit (hours, days or weeks) throughout, for
consistency. Write the time on each task’s arrow.
8. Within the Activity Network Diagram determine the “critical path,” the longest
path from the beginning to the end of the project. Mark the critical path with a
heavy line or color. Calculate the length of the critical path: the sum of all the task
times on the path.
9. Calculate the earliest times each task can start and finish, based on how long
preceding tasks take.
These are called earliest start (ES) and earliest finish
Start with the first task, where ES = 0, and work forward.
Finish the Activity Network Diagram by drawing a square
divided into four quadrants, as in Figure 4. Write the ES in the top left box and the
EF in the top right.
For each task:
o Earliest start (ES) = the largest EF of the tasks leading into this one
o Earliest finish (EF) = ES + task time for this task
Description: Affinity diagram Also called: affinity chart, or K-J method. The affinity diagram organizes a large number of ideas into their natural relationships. This method taps a team’s creativity and intuition. When to Use : • When you are confronted with many facts or ideas in unapparent choices . • When issues seem too large and complex to grasp . • When group consensus is necessary. • After a brainstorming exercise . • When analyzing verbal data, such as survey results. Procedure to create an Affinity Chart :
1- Record each idea with a marking pen on a separate sticky note or card. (During a brainstorming session, write directly onto sticky notes or cards) Randomly spread notes on a large work surface so all notes are visible to everyone. The entire team gathers around the notes and participates in the next steps. 2- It is very important that no one talk during this step. Look for ideas that seem to be related in some way. Place them side by side. Repeat until all notes are grouped. It’s okay to have “loners” that don’t seem to fit a group. It’s all right to move a note that someone else has already moved. If a note seems to belong in two groups, make a copy.
3- You can talk now. Participants can discuss the shape of the chart, any surprising patterns, and especially reasons for moving controversial notes. A few more changes may be made. When ideas are grouped, select a heading for each group. Look for a note in each grouping that captures the meaning of the group. Place it at the top of the group. If there is no such note, write one. Often it is useful to write or highlight this note in a different color. 4- Combine groups into “super groups” if appropriate
Description The Interrelationship diagram shows cause-and-effect relationships. Just as importantly, the process of creating an interrelationship diagram helps a team analyze the natural links between the different aspects of a complex situation. When to Use: *When trying to understand the links between ideas or cause-and-effect relationships, such as identifying the area of greatest impact for improvement.
*When analyzing a complex issue for causes. *When implementing a complex solution. *After generating an affinity diagram, cause-and-effect diagram ortree diagram, to completely explore the relations of ideas.
Interrelationship Diagram Construction: Gather sticky notes or cards, large paper surface (newsprint or two flipchart pages taped together), marking pens and tape. 1. Write a statement defining the issue for the relations diagram. Write it on a card or sticky note and place it at the top of the work surface. 2. Brainstorm ideas about the issue and write them on individual cards or notes. If another tool such as an affinity diagram preceded this one, take the ideas from the affinity diagram or the most detailed row of the tree diagram or the final
branches on the fishbone diagram. You may want to use these ideas as starting points and brainstorm additional ideas. 3. Place one idea at a time on the work surface. For each idea, ask: "Is this idea related to any others?" Place ideas that are related together. Leave space between the cards to allow for drawing arrows. Repeat until all cards are on the work surface. 4. For each idea, ask, "Does this idea cause or influence any other idea?" Draw arrows from each idea to the ones it causes or influences. Repeat the question for every idea. 5. Analyze the diagram: 6. Count the arrows in and out for each idea. Write the counts at the bottom of each box. The ones with the most arrows are the key ideas. 7. Note which ideas have primarily outgoing (from) arrows. These are the basic causes. 8. Note which ideas have primarily incoming (to) arrows. These are final effects that also may be critical to address.
The matrix diagram shows the relationship between two, three or four groups of
information. Depending on the type of matrix, it may illustrate
supporting information about the relationship, such as the relationship strength, the
roles played by various individuals or measurements. Here we discuss six
differently shaped matrices, L, T, Y, X, C and roof-shaped
When to Use:
Table 1 summarizes when to use each type of matrix diagram. In the below
examples, we shaded the matrix axes to emphasize the letter that gives each
matrix its name. You chose the matrix that matches the number of groups and
An L-shaped matrix relates two groups of items to each other (or one group to
A T-shaped matrix diagram relates three groups of items: groups B and C are each
related to A. Groups B and C are not related to each other.
A Y-shaped matrix relates three groups of items. Each group is related to the other
A C-shaped matrix simultaneously relates three groups of items at one 3-D point.
An X-shaped matrix relates four groups of items. Each group is related to two
A roof-shaped matrix relates one group of items to itself. It can be used by itself or
as a roof to a L- or T-shaped matrix.
This L-shaped matrix summarizes customers' requirements. The team placed
numbers in the boxes to show numerical specifications and used check marks to
show choice of packaging.
The L-shaped matrix actually forms an upside-down L. This is the most basic and
most common matrix format.
This T-shaped matrix relates product models (group A) to their manufacturing
locations (group B) and to their customers (group C). Examining the matrix in
different ways reveals different information.
For example, concentrating on model A, we see the Texas plant produces it in a
large volume and the Alabama plant manufactures a small volume. Time Inc. is the
major customer for Model A, while Arlo Co. buys a small amount.
If we choose to focus on the customer rows, we learn only one customer, Arlo,
buys all four models. Zig buys just one. Time makes large purchases of A and D,
while Lyle is a relatively minor customer.
This Y-shaped matrix shows the relationships between customer requirements,
internal process metrics and the departments involved. Modified symbols show the
strength of the relationships:
*A primary relationship is the manufacturing department's responsibility for
*A secondary relationship is the link between product availability and inventory
*A minor relationships is the distribution department’s responsibility for order lead
*There is no relationship between the purchasing department and on-time delivery.
The matrix tells an interesting story about on-time delivery. The company assigned
the distribution department primary responsibility for the on-time requirement. Two
metrics that most strongly relate to on-time delivery are inventory levels and order
lead time. Of the two, distribution has only a weak relationship with order lead
time and none with the inventory levels. Perhaps the responsibility for on-time
delivery needs to be reconsidered. Based on the matrix, where would you put
responsibility for on-time delivery?
Think of C meaning “cube.” Because this matrix diagram is three-dimensional, it is
difficult to draw and infrequently used.
If it is important to compare three groups simultaneously, consider using a three-
dimensional model or computer software that can provide a clear visual image.
This figure shows one point on a C-shaped matrix relating products, customers and
manufacturing locations. Zig Company's model B is made at the Mississippi plant.
This figure extends the T-shaped matrix example into an X-shaped matrix by
including the relationships of freight lines with the manufacturing sites they serve
and the customers who use them.
Each axis of the matrix is related to the two adjacent ones, but not to the one
across. Thus, the product models are related to the plant sites and to the
customers, but not to the freight lines.
A lot of information can be contained in an X-shaped matrix diagram. In this one,
we observe that Red Lines and Zip Inc., which seem to be minor carriers based on
volume, are the only carriers that serve Lyle Co. Lyle doesn't buy much, but it and
Arlo are the only customers for model C. Model D is made at three locations, while
the other models are made at two. What other observations can you make?
Roof-Shaped Matrix Diagram
The roof-shaped matrix is used with an L- or T-shaped matrix to show one group
of items relating to itself. It is most commonly used with the house of quality,
where it forms the roof of the house.
In the figure below, the customer requirements are related to one another. For
example, a strong relationship links color and trace metals, while viscosity is
unrelated to any of the other requirements.
Description: A priorities matrix evaluates and prioritizes a list of options. The team first establishes a list of weighted criteria and then evaluates each option against those criteria. This is a variation of the L-shaped matrix. When to Use:
-When a list of options must be narrowed to one or a couple of choices. -When the decision must be made on the basis of several criteria.
Priorities Matrix Construction 1. Brainstorm the evaluation criteria appropriate to the situation. If possible, involve customers in this process. 2. Discuss and refine the list of criteria. From the list, identify any criteria that must be included and then any that should not be included. Reduce the list of criteria to those that the team believes are most important. Tools such as multivoting may be useful here. 3. Based on the criteria importance to the priorities matrix, assign a relative weight to each criterion. Do this by distributing 10 points among the criteria. Assign the points by discussion and consensus. Another possibility; have each member assign weights, then totaled the numbers for each criterion. 4. Draw an L-shaped priorities matrix. Write the criteria and their weights as labels along one edge and the list of options along the other edge. Usually, whichever
group has fewer items occupies the vertical edge. 5. Evaluate each choice against the criteria. There are three ways to do this: Method 1: Establish a rating scale for each criterion. Make sure that your rating scales are consistent. Word your criteria and set the scales so that the high end of the scale (9 or 1) is always the rating that would tend to make you select that option. The scale should reflect impact on customers, greatest importance, least difficulty, and greatest likelihood of success.
Method 2: This may be the best method for an indiviual ranking when there is no group. For each item on the list of the priorities matriax, rank-order all critreia on how well that critieria meets the each item. Method 3: Establish a baseline, which may be one of the alternatives or the current product or service then rank all the others. For each criterion in the priorities matrix, rate each other alternative in comparison to the baseline, using scores of worse (-1), same (0), or better (+1). Finer rating scales can be used, such as 2, 1, 0, –1, –2 for a five-point scale or 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3 for a seven-point scale. Be sure that positive numbers reflect desirable ratings. After establishing the wieght and rating then multiply these together. Add the points for each option. The option with the highest score will not necessarily be the one to choose, but the relative scores can generate meaningful discussion and lead the team toward consensus Example Figure below shows a priorities matrix used by a customer service team at a restaurant to decide which aspect of the overall problem of "long wait time" to tackle first. The problems they identified are customers waiting for the host, the waiter, the food, and the check. The scaleing criteria they identified are "Customer pain" (how much does this negatively affect the customer?), "Ease to solve", "Effect on other systems", and "Speed to solve".
Originally, the criteria "Ease to solve" was written as "Difficulty to solve", but that wording reversed the rating scale. With the current wording, a high rating on each criterion defines a state that would encourage selecting the problem: Preferably we want to focus on issues that are high customer pain, very easy to solve, high effect on other systems, and quick solution.
" Customer pain" has been weighted with 5 points, showing that the team considers it by far the most important criterion, compared to 1 or 2 points for the others. The team chose a rating scale of high = 3, medium = 2, and low = 1. Let's look at the problem "Customers wait for food." The customer pain is medium (2), because the restaurant ambiance is nice. This problem would not be easy to solve (low ease = 1), as it involves both waiters and kitchen staff. The effect on other systems is medium (2), because waiters have to make several trips to the kitchen. The problem will take a while to solve (low speed = 1), as the kitchen is cramped and inflexible. (Notice that this has forced a guess about the ultimate solution: kitchen redesign. This may or may not be a good guess.) Each rating is multiplied by the weight for that criterion. For example, "Customer pain" (weight of 5) for "Customers wait for host" rates high (3) for a score of 15. The scores are added across the rows to obtain a total for each problem. "Customers wait for host" has the highest score at 28. Since the next highest score
is 18, the host problem probably should be addressed first. Rules of Thumb
A very long list of options in a priorities matrix can first be shortened with a tool such as list reduction or multivoting. Use the priorities matrix to compare opinions. When possible, however, it may be better to utilize previous summarized data the various criteria. Form Sub-teams to collect data on the various criteria. Several criteria for selecting a problem or improvement opportunity require guess-estimates about the ultimate solution. For example: evaluating resources required, payback, difficulty to solve, and time required to solve. Therefore, your rating of the options will be only as good as your assumptions about the solutions. It's critical that the high end of the criteria scale (5 or 1) always is the end you would want to choose. Criteria such as cost, resource use and difficulty can cause mix-ups: low cost is highly desirable! If your rating scale sometimes rates a desirable state as 5 and sometimes as 1, you will not get correct results. You can avoid this by rewording your criteria: Say low cost instead of cost; ease instead of difficulty. Or, in the priorities matrix column headings, write what generates low and high ratings. For example:
When evaluating options by method 1, some people prefer to think about just one option, rating each criterion in turn across the whole matrix, and then doing the next option and so on. Others prefer to think about one criterion, working down the priorities matrix for all options, then going on to the next criterion. Ask your team and then take their pick. If individuals on the team assign different ratings to the same criterion, discuss this so people can learn from each other’s views and arrive at a consensus. In some versions of this tool, the sum of the unweighted scores is also calculated and both totals are studied for guidance toward a decision. When using this tool choose a plan, solution, or new product, results can be used to improve options. An option that ranks highly overall but has low scores on criteria A and B can be modified with ideas from options that score well on A and B. This combining and improving can be done for every option, and then the priorities matrix used again to evaluate the new options.
Process Decision Program Chart
Description: The Process decision program chart (PDPC) systematically identifies what might go wrong in a plan under development. Countermeasures are developed to prevent or offset those problems. By using PDPC, you can either revise the plan to avoid the problems or be ready with the best response when a problem occurs. When to Use: Before implementing a plan, especially when the plan is large and complex.
When the plan must be completed on schedule. When the price of failure is high. Process decision program chart Construction: Obtain or develop a tree diagram of the proposed plan. This high-level diagram shows the objective, a second level of main activities and a third level of broadly defined tasks to accomplish the main activities. For each task on the third level, brainstorm what could go wrong. Review all the potential problems. Then eliminate any that are improbable or whose consequences would be insignificant. On the tree diagram draw the problems as a fourth level linked to the tasks. For each potential problem, brainstorm possible countermeasures. These might be actions or changes to the plan that would prevent the problem, or actions that would remedy it once it occurred. Show the countermeasures as a fifth level, outlined in clouds or jagged lines. Decide the practicallity of each countermeasure. Use criteria such as cost, time required, ease of implementation and effectiveness. Mark impractical countermeasures with an X and practical ones with an O. Here are some questions that can be used to identify problems: What inputs must be present? Are there any undesirable inputs linked to the good inputs? What outputs are we expecting? Might others happen as well?
What is this supposed to do? Is there something else that it might do instead or in addition? Does this depend on actions, conditions or events? Are these controllable or uncontrollable? What cannot be changed or is inflexible? Have we allowed any margin for error? What assumptions are we making that could turn out to be wrong? What has been our experience in similar situations in the past? How is this different from before? If we wanted this to fail, how could we accomplish that? Process decision program chart example: A medical group is planning to improve the care of patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and asthma through a new chronic illness management program (CIMP). They have defined four main elements. For each of these elements they laid the information out in the process decision program chart below.
Dotted lines represent omitted sections of the chart. The chart only shows some of the potential problems and countermeasures identified by the planning.
For example, one of the possible problems with patients’ goal-setting is backsliding. The team liked the idea of each patient having a buddy or sponsor. The team adds
this to the program design. Another areas of the chart helped them plan better rollout, such as arranging for all staff to visit a clinic with a CIMP program in place. The chart allowed them to plan in advance for problems, such as training the CIMP nurses on the method to counsel patients who choose inappropriate goals.
Tree Diagram Description:
You may also know the Tree diagram as a systematic diagram, tree analysis, analytical tree, or hierarchy
diagram. The diagram starts with one item that branches into two or more, each of which branch into
two or more, and so on. It looks like a tree, with a trunk and multiple branches. You used it to break
down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail. Developing the tree diagram helps you move
your thinking from generalities to specifics.
When to Use:
*When addressing an known issue with a broad span and you must move to specific details, such as developing
logical steps to achieve an objective.
*When developing actions to carry out a solution or other plan.
*When analyzing processes in detail.
*When probing for the root cause of a problem.
*When evaluating implementation issues for several potential solutions.
*After an affinity diagram or relations diagram has uncovered key issues.
*As a communication tool, to explain details to others.
1. Develop a statement of the goal, project, plan, problem or the item under study. Write it at the top
(for a vertical tree) or far left (for a horizontal tree) of your work surface.
2. Ask a targeted question that leads you to the next level of detail. For example:
o For a goal, action plan or work breakdown structure: "What tasks must be done to accomplish this?"
or "How can this be accomplished?"
o For root‐cause analysis: "What causes this?" or "Why does this happen?"
o For gozinto chart: "What are the components?" (Gozinto literally comes from the phrase "What goes
3. Brainstorm all possible answers. If you previously conducted an affinity diagram or relationship
diagram , take ideas from there. Write each idea in a line below (for a vertical tree) or to the right of (for
a horizontal tree) the first statement. Show the links between the tiers with arrows.
4. Complete a "necessary and sufficient" check. Are all the items at this level necessary for the level
above? If all the items at this level were present or accomplished, would they be sufficient for the one
on the level above?
5. Each of the new branches now becomes the subject: a goal, objective or problem statement. For
each one, ask a targeted question again to uncover the next level of detail. Create another tier of
statements and show the relationships to the previous tier of ideas with arrows. Do a "necessary and
sufficient check" for each set of items.
6. Continue to turn each new idea into a subject statement and ask the question. Do not stop until you
reach fundamental elements: specific actions, not divisible components, or root causes.
7. Complete a "necessary and sufficient" check of the entire diagram. Are all the items necessary for the
objective? If all the items were present or accomplished, would they be sufficient for the objective?
Tree diagram example
The Pearl River, NY School District, a 2001 recipient of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award ,
uses a tree diagram to communicate how district‐wide goals are translated into sub‐goals and individual
projects. They call this connected approach The Golden Thread.
The district has three fundamental goals. The first, to improve academic performance, is partly shown in
the figure below.
District leaders identified two strategic objectives that, when accomplished, will lead to improved
academic performance: academic achievement and college admissions.
Lag indicators are long‐term and results‐oriented. The lag indicator for academic achievement is
Regents' diploma rate: the percent of students receiving a state diploma by passing eight Regents'
Lead indicators are short‐term and process‐oriented. Starting in 2000, the lead indicator for the
Regents' diploma rate was performance on new fourth and eighth grade state tests.
Finally, they defined annual projects, based on cause‐and‐effect analysis, that improves performance. In
2000‐2001, four projects were accomplished to improve academic achievement.
Thus this tree diagram shows an interlocking series of goals and indicators. It traces the causes of
system wide academic performance first through high school diploma rates, then through lower grade
performance, and back to specific improvement projects.
Process Implementation tools
Root Cause Analysis
Description When applying root cause analysis (RCA) you investigate and categorize the root causes of events. The term "event" identifies occurrences that produce or potentially produce these types of consequences. To develop effective recommendations and solutions you must understand why the event occurred. Imagine an occurrence during which an operator is instructed to close valve A; instead, the operator closes valve B. The typical RCA investigation would probably conclude the cause was operator error. However a deeper root cause analyis study may find inadequate training or mislabeled valves. When to Use When you want to know the real cause of problem. 1‐ Root causes are the underlying causes. The investigator’s goal should be to identify specific underlying causes. The more specific cause details, the easier it to arrive at recommendations that prevents recurrence. 2‐Root causes are those that can reasonably be identified: Occurrence investigations must be cost beneficial. It is not practical to keep valuable manpower occupied indefinitely searching for the root causes of occurrences. A structured RCA helps analysts get the most out of their invested investigation time. 3‐ Management can control root causes. Analysts should avoid using general cause classifications such as operator error, equipment failure or external factor. Why did the operator or machine fail? 4‐Root causes have effective solutions. Solutions directly address the root causes identified during the investigation. Seven Major Steps to Problem Solving: 1. Identify the problem. Utilize a flow chart to imagine the situation and see the location of the problem. 2. List possible root casues. Before jumping to conclusion about the root cause, look at a wide range of possibilities. Fish bone diagram is often used 3. Search out the most likely root cause: Check points might be used to record each failure and supporting information. 4‐ Identify potential solutions: Here you list all possible solutions arising fromBrainstorming. 5‐ Select and implement a solution. To select the most valuable solution use aPriorities Matrix. 6‐ Follow up to evaluate the effect. To insure you solved problem, you can use control charts. 7‐ Standardize the process. Even after solving the problem you need to train employees, update procedures, etc... which ensures every one knows the new solution and procedure.
Five Whys Description:
The Five Whys also named 5-whys analysis method is used to isolate the true root cause of a problem. When disecting a problem, ask why the issue occured. For each reason given, ask why that reason happen. After asking why repeately for every reason, you will identify the true root cause. 5 why means 5 cycles, but you may not need 5 cycles. Sometimes 3 or 4 cycles isolates the cause. By the time you get to the 4th or 5th why, most likely you're looking squarely at management practices. This methodology is closely related to the Cause & Effect (Fishbone) diagram, and can be used to complement the analysis to complete a Cause & Effect diagram. Example: Here is a real world example from a kitchen manufacturer:
Root Cause: Company management did not understand lean manufacturing, and did not set appropriate project targets when the plant was launched.
Plan–Do–Check–Act ( PDCA Cycle) also called PDCA, plan–do–study–act (PDSA)
cycle, Deming cycle, or Shewhart cycle. Follow the plan–do–check–act cycle when
implementing change. Repeat the PDCA cycle again and again for continuous
When to Use :
*As a model for continuous improvement.
*When starting a new improvement project.
*When developing a new or improved design of a process, product or service.
*When defining a repetitive work process.
*When planning data collection and analysis in order to verify and prioritize
problems or root causes.
*When implementing any change.
PDCA cycle Construction :
1. Plan. Recognize an opportunity and plan a change. Document the plan.
2. Do. Test the change. Carry out a small-scale study.
3. Check. Review the test, analyze the results and identify what you’ve learned.
4. Act. Take action based on what you learned in the study step:
If the change did not work, go through the cycle again with a different plan. If you
were successful, incorporate what you learned from the test into wider changes.
Use what you learned to plan new improvements, beginning the cycle again
The Pearl River, NY School District, a 2001 recipient of the Malcolm Baldrige
National Quality Award, uses the PDCA cycle as a model for defining most of their
work processes, from the boardroom to the classroom.
PDCA cycle is the basic structure for the district’s overall strategic planning, needs-
analysis, curriculum design and delivery, staff goal-setting and evaluation, provision
of student services and support services, and classroom instruction. The above
figure shows their A+ Approach to Classroom Success which illustrates their
continuous cycle of designing curriculum and delivering classroom instruction.
1- Plan. The A+ approach begins with a plan step called analyze. In this step, the
team analyzes the students' needs by examining available data from Pearl River's
electronic data warehouse which includes grades to performance on standardized
tests. Data can be analyzed for individual students or stratified by grade, gender or
any other subgroup.
2- Do. The A+ Approach continues with two steps:
The first step determines the required national and state standards and how they
will be assessed. Based on this, the teaching staff plans the curriculum by reviewing
subject material taught earlier. Then the staff compares and modifies the
curriculum to assure continuity in later grade levels and other disciplines for the
students. Teachers develop individual goals to improve their instruction where the
analyze step showed any gaps.
For the second step the teachers provide the actual instruction following the above
curriculum and teaching goals. Within the set parameters, teachers vary the
delivery of instruction based on each student’s learning rates and styles.
3- Check. Formal and informal assessments take place continually. This
includes daily teacher assessments and-six-weeks progress reports compared to
annual standardized tests. In addition teachers access comparative data on the
electronic database to identify trends. Also a special child study team monitors
If these assessments show students are not learning as expected then mid-course
corrections are made. This includes re-instruction, changing teaching methods and
more direct teacher mentoring. Assessment data becomes the input for the next
step in the cycle.
4- Act. When goals are met, the school standardizes the curriculum design and
teaching methods. Teachers share best practices in formal and informal settings.
Results from this cycle become input for the “analyze” phase of the next A+ cycle.
SIPOC is a process‐oriented tool that pieces together the major elements of a process/value stream to
allow participants the ability to view it at a high‐level and agree on it.
This term consists of the first letter of the five major pieces in a process
S uppliers to the process,
I nputs provided by the suppliers,
P rocess Steps – the main steps of the process,
O utputs for the customer, and
C ustomers of the process.
Once identifying every element of the SIPOC, a group can easily identify the starting point and the
stopping point of the process. If you cannot identify all the elements, it may indicate the lack of a
When to Use:
Use this tool because it:
1‐ Verifies the existence of a process.
2‐ Helps clarify the scope of the initiative/project early in the scoping process.
3‐ Sets clear boundaries of where the project starts and stops in terms of the overall scope of work.
4‐ Helps a group determine the most effective level of detail to address in the project.
5‐ Shapes the scope further, enabling early review by the sponsor of the initiative/project.
6‐ Helps re‐shape the group to ensure that the appropriate people are in the group and that some areas
are not over‐represented.
7‐ Provides early discussion and clarification of the group’s scope which speeds up the subsequent work
of the group.
1‐ Obtain a general description of the scope of the project from the leader, process owner, or subject
matter expert. This should include a summary of the specific issues being addressed.
2‐Identify the customers of the process.
3‐ Identify the outputs/final products to the customers.
4‐ Identify the high‐level steps to the process.
5‐ Clearly identify the “start” and “stop” points of the process. Start point should be prior to the first
process step and stop point should be immediately after the last process step.
6‐ Identify the suppliers and inputs to the process.
7‐ Document/Summarize the conclusions/output of this tool for later reference.
FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)
Description: You use a FMEA model to prioritize potential defects based on their severity, expected frequency, and likelihood of detection. When to Use:
An FMEA can be used on a design or a process. You use it to guide your actions to improve design or process robustness. The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis highlights weaknesses in the current design or process.This tool prioritizes and organizes continuous improvement efforts on areas which offer the greatest return. Construction : 1- The process is very straightforward, and begins by identifying all of the probable failure modes. A failure mode is anything in the process or product that could cause a defect, nonconformity, safety issue or break down. 2- You base the analysis on experience, review, previous history, and brainstorming. If possible use actual data from the current and simialr processes. New designs or processes may not have actual historical data. Try to use data from similar designs or processes. 3- For each failure mode assign a value of 1-10 scale for each of severity, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. 4- After assigning a value, the three numbers for each failure mode are multiplied together to yield a Risk Priority Number (RPN). The RPN ranks the failure modes. The highest number demands the most urgent improvement activity. 5- To respond to high RPN consider error-proofing, and poka-yoke actions. 6- After addressing the high RPN, you recalculate the RPN for that mode. You then address the next highest RPN issue. Severity, Probability of Occurence and Detection. Severity measure the possible damage that could occur to the product, process and human using the item if a failure occures. A higher number means more possible damage.
Probability of Occurence measures the acutal chance the failure mode appears. A higher number means a higer chance. Probability of Detection measures the actual chance of you catching the defect before escaping. A lower number means you have extensive controls on catching the defect. Following is an example of a simplified FMEA for a seat belt installation process at an automobile assembly plant.
As you can see, three potential failure modes have been identified. Failure mode number two has an RPN of 144. This issue has the highest priority for process improvement. To benefity your customers you may establish RPN maximum targets to ensure a given level of process capability. We recommend establishing guidelines for assessing the values for Severity, Occurrence, and Detection to make the RPN . FMEA is one of many Total Quality Management tools.
Innovation & Creativity tools
One cannot teach you creative thinking skills but you can improve them by
following the ideas on this page. This process does not require intelligence or even
experience, although these qualities help put creative ideas into practice.
Creativity is the result of right-brain activity - intuition, insight, inspiration, which
is not readily encouraged in the education system. Indeed, such thought processes
are often suppressed in favor of left-brain activities - logic, analysis and judgment.
Blocks to Creativity :
Would-be creative thinkers mistakenly blame road blocks to their thought
processes. Road blocks include...
*Only clever, successful or artistic people can be creative.
*You need to suffer hardship and pain to be truly creative (artist starving in the
*I'm too old, only young people have creative ideas.
* I need time, money and effort. Creative thinking is a luxury most of us can’t
*It’s only for men/women/the birds.
Your imagination fuels the creative thought process. But negative thinking stops
Triggering Creative Thoughts:
*Be hungry for information; read, read and read more.
*Take up crafts and hobbies (you don’t have to be good at them).
*Write, scribble, draw, design whatever comes into your head (often one idea
leads to other better ideas).
*Brainstorm ideas with others.
*Put yourself under reasonable pressure by setting goals and targets (caution:
undue pressure leads to panic and stops the creative flow) .
*Talk to children: often they make unusual associations between ideas (peanut
butter and carrots, choc-ice and chips...).
An Exercise :
You’ve been offered a unique chance to take a six-month sabbatical. You want to
spend the time creatively but don’t quite know how. Try this exercise:
1. Take yourself to somewhere peaceful with some blank sheets of paper and
coloured pens .
2. Jot down or draw different ideas as they come to you.
3. Do this over a few days until you run out of ideas .
4. Look for links between the ideas .
5. Take the most promising idea and develop it further.
6. Now select one of these newly developed ideas and expand on it.
7. Repeat this exercise until your creative juices dry up. Stimulating creative
thought processes needs effort:. 95% perspiration, 5% inspiration.
For those of you who believe that creative thought is a luxury you can’t
afford... remember this above Albert Einstein quote:
Description: Brainstorming is a simple way for a group to generate multiple ideas such as possible solutions to a known problem. When to Use: When you need as many ideas as possible. The classic method of round-the-table suggestions helps solve process improvement problems. Method: 1- Follow the below to start a brainstorming session: • The topic is agreed upon and written in clear terms in view of the group. • The leader/ facilitator asks for ideas from the group. • Each idea is written down without discussion, analysis, or criticism. • The process is continued until the flow of ideas stops. 2- More structured ways: • A round-robin approach involves asking each person in the group to state one idea and write it.
• If they have none, they simply pass. • The next person is asked for one idea, then the next, until there are no more ideas . 3- Crawford Slip Method - Useful to improve trust among team members. Or when dealing with a particularly sensitive issue. The anonymous nature of this method allows people to feel free to provide their ideas. The team often finds that several people have the same idea, which begins to build common ground. • Asks each person to create his or her own list of ideas on a slip paper. • Set a determined time limit, 5 - 10 minutes. • Slips are subsequently given to a trusted individual who compiles them into a single list.
EXAMPLE: Here’s an example taken from one of our brainstorming creativity seminars: Problem: An umbrella manufacturer has an unsold stock of 500,000 old-fashioned, black umbrellas in the warehouse.How do you liberate the warehouse space while minimizing costs? Ideas: • Publicity carriers for firms • Give out free umbellas in rainy town centers • Use material to make hats and coats • Use upside down as irrigation devices • Sell to UK • Sell two as ‘Carry Kit’ to the Third World • Burn down the warehouse and collect the insurance • Make a giant sculpture • Use struts as bicycle spokes • Send to northern Norway as snow-bound airport signaling device (several hundred could be opened and closed to spell out messages to approaching aircraft!) • Sell to Africa as parasols, etc Best three ideas after 5-point multivoting : 1- Use upside down as irrigation devices 2- Sell two umbrellas + a pole as a ‘Carry Kit’ to Third World 3- Make a giant sculpture of an umbrella for publicity Brainstorming guidelines:
There are four basic rules in brainstorming. These reduce the social inhibitions that occur in groups and therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas. 1. Focus on quantity: This rule enhances divergent production, aims to facilitate problem solving through the maxim, quantity breeds quality. The greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution. 2. No criticism: During group brainstorming, put criticism on hold. Instead of immediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, the participants focus on extending or adding to it. Reserve postive criticism for the later selection stage of the process. Never use negative criticism. By suspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmosphere where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas. 3. Unusual ideas are welcome: To get a good and long list of ideas, encourage unusual ideas. They open new ways of thinking and provide better solutions than regular ideas. They can be generated by looking from problem from another perspective and setting aside assumptions. 4. Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas can be combined to form a single very good idea, as suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach leads to better and more complete ideas than merely generating new ideas alone. Allow idea association to build new ideas.
Description: Mind mapping helps improve a process, an individual or group to think through many different issues, and simultaneously keep them all in mind. This tool creates a visual representation of many issues and helps a group get a more complete and common understanding of the situation. When to Use: These diagrams have many applications in personal, family, educational, and business situations, including note taking, brainstorming (where ideas are inserted into the map radially around the center node, without the implicit prioritization that comes from hierarchy or sequential arrangements, and wherein grouping and organizing is reserved for later stages), summarizing, revising and general clarifying of thoughts. For example, one could listen to a lecture and take down notes using mind maps for the most important points or keywords. One can also use mind maps as a mnemonic technique or to sort out a complicated idea.
Method: 1- Start the map by first listing the primary objective in the center. 2- Then list the major related issues around it. 3- Each of these issues will then bring other issues to mind. Add these to the map wherever logical. 4- To improve your creativity, use symbols or photos rather than words within the map. Example
Problem: What could a writer include in a pocketbook for creative managers?!
Other Guidelines: 1. Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors. 2. Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your diagram. 3. Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters. 4. Each word/image must be alone and sitting on its own line. 5. The lines must be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker, organic and flowing, becoming thinner as they radiate out from the centre. 6. Make the lines the same length as the word/image. 7. Use colors or your own code throughout the Map. 8. Develop your own personal style of Mapping. 9. Use emphasis and show associations in your Map. 10. Keep the Map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches.
Analogies Description: This is a brainstorming tool that lets you look at a problem in a new way. You ask a group to compare it to a completely different situation thus triggering creative ideas. Often, the original analogy has disappeared by the time you make your final selection. Method: 1- Describe the problem to be solved and ask the group tobrainstorm a list of
similar situations. The best way to come up with this list is to state the problem and say It's a bit like....
Alternatively, the group leader could impose an idea from which to start. For example, a fairy tale (Snow White, etc) or a situation from history (the Battle of Waterloo, etc). 2- Select an appropriate tangent from the list . 3- Ask the group to compare the problem at hand to the selected idea and come up with suggested actions. For example, in the Snow White idea, the seven dwarves could be smaller companies or departments who could help you solve your wicked witch problem. 4- Note ideas as they come and encourage triggers to new, unrelated solutions. 5- Select solution(s) from the list and elaborate . EXAMPLE:
Problems: How to develop a new banking product in the face of stiff competition? The List: *It's a bit like...A trapper venturing into the Canadian tundra surrounded by bears and Indians. * Building a hotel in the middle of the Sahara desert. * Selling fans to the Patagonians. Selected: Hotel in the desert. Triggers: From deserts to new markets to be explored - despite the heat. From new markets to the example of banks creating specific products and services for the those under 18. Then keep them as adult customers. From the idea of the under 18 to the eureka suggestion of offering computer seminars, factory visits and talks from occupational psychologists for 12-15 year olds. This real case (in Switzerland) provided the organization not only with future clients but also some interesting free PR in the national press.
Description: Lateral thinking is closely connected to creative thinking. It generates a wealth of ideas by removing the barriers from following a particular path. With this tool
you wander into unknown territory rather than sticking to an established route. The key differences between lateral and logical thinkers are:
Lateral thinkers are not born but made. You can learn this thinking approach but to be effective you need to practiced this skill regularly.
Uses: 1. Purposefully stimulate the creation of new ideas. Compare this to creative thinking which often relies on inspiration and is not necessarily structured. 2. Solve problems, requiring insight and a re-shaping of existing approaches. 3. Develop and improve designs. 4. Opens the mind. The lateral brainstormer is consciously aware that things might not be what they seem. This thinking process does not mean constantly questioning or denying everything: "Well, you say it’s raining. But is this what we would define as rain?"
Method: Lateral brainstorming rearranges information and looks at different ways of doing things. You can constructively encouraged this type of thinking by following the below: 1. Reversing Situations: For example, students instruct teachers, customers help shop assistants, fix alimony before marriage. It doesn't matter how ridiculous the idea is; you don't know where it might lead. 2. Removing the dominant feature within an idea : For example, money might be the dominant obstacle to developing a new product. Remove the need for money and continue the discussions without allowing money to be mentioned. An unique solution might emerge once the problem no longer blocks the thought processes.
Let Ideas Stew : Tight schedules, pressurized lives, the "need it by yesterday" approach to organizations drive us to think quickly, decide immediately, and then spend double
the amount of time undoing the damage. Ideas, however unlikely, need time to settle, germinate or die quietly. Lateral thoughts sleep on lumpy mattresses stuffed with unfinished, unconnected, undeveloped and even bizarre which we refuse to reject until the last possible moment. Stop Thief! :
Why is a lateral thinker like a burglar? Sneaking in through a side gate (although he planned to enter via the back of the property) a burglar breaks a window and enters the house with the intention of stealing a camcorder kept in the study. However, he spots a diamond ring and necklace on the kitchen counter. He forgets all about the camcorder and makes off with the jewellery. The lateral thinker can choose not to approach the problem by the most obvious and planned route (like the burglar). Instead he stumbles across something which was not being sought in the first place. Lateral thinking is an important quality management tool.
Description: Triz is a problem solving method based on logic and data, not intuition. It accelerates the project team's ability to creatively solve problems. This tool is spreading into corporate use across several parallel paths – it is increasingly common in six
sigma processes, in project management, risk management systems, and organizational innovation initiatives.
This tool begins with the hypothesis that there are universal principles of creativity that are the basis for innovations that advance technology. Researchers identified and codified these principles. When taught they make the process of creativity more predictable.
General guidelines: 1. Problems and solutions repeat across industries and sciences. The classification of the contradictions in each problem predicts the creative solutions to that problem. 2. Patterns of technical evolution repeat across industries and sciences. 3. Creative innovations use scientific effects outside the studied field. An Example At the highest level, TRIZ general problem solving finds a way to produce the product with no waste, at 100 percent yield, with no added complexity.
One of the evolution patterns of technology is that energy (fields) replaces objects (mechanical devices).
For example, consider using a laser instead of a scalpel for eye surgery. In this case, ultrasound can be used to break the cell walls or using an enzyme to "eat" the cell wall (chemical energy) instead of hitting them. This may seem very general, but it led the pharmaceutical researchers to analyze all the resources available in the problem (the cells, the cell walls, the containment fluid, the motion of the fluid, the processing facility, etc.) and to conclude that three specific solutions had high potential for their problem: 1. Break the cell walls by sound waves (from the pattern of evolution of replacing mechanical means by fields). 2. Break the cell walls by shearing, as they pass through the processing facility (using the resources of the existing system in a different way). 3. Break the cell walls with an enzyme in the fluid that eat the cell walls and release the contents at the desired time. All three methods have been tested successfully. The least expensive, highest yield method was put in production. Researchers developed these general solutions over the course of the 60 years of TRIZ research and organized in many different ways. Some of these analytic methods include: * The Ideal Final Result and Ideality * Functional Modeling, Analysis and Trimming * Locating the Zones of Conflict. (This is more familiar to Six Sigma problem solvers as Root Cause Analysis.) Prescriptive methods include: *The 40 Inventive Principles of Problem Solving< *The Separation Principles * Laws of Technical Evolution and Technology Forecasting * 76 Standard Solutions In the course of solving any one technical problem, one tool or many can be used. The 40 Principles of Problem Solving are the most accessible tool of TRIZ. These principles were found to repeat across many fields, as solutions to many general contradictions, which are at the heart of many problems.
SCAMPER Brainstorming Description:
The SCAMPER method helps you kickoff a brainstorming session. You can use this method in situations such as finding new solutions, creating new products, driving process improvment, finding root cause etc. Its abbreviation for the seven words you see below.
Method: Using this method, seven questions are used by a team to stimulate creativity: •What can be used as a...................... Substitute? •How can .......... Combined ? •How can ...... be Adapted? •How can ...... be Modified? •How can ...... be Put to other uses? •How can ...... be Eliminated? •What if ............ Reversed (or Rearranged)?