weight management: overweight, obesity, and underweight chapter 9

Download Weight Management: Overweight, Obesity, and Underweight Chapter 9

If you can't read please download the document

Post on 12-Jan-2016

214 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Overweight and ObesityMajor health problem in the U.S. 66% of Adults33% of Children Growing concern worldwidePrevalence especially high amongwomen, poor, blacks, and HispanicsBMI of 25 or greaterEpidemic is worldwideNot merely among industrialized countries

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Overweight and ObesityBMI > 25

  • 1993: Most states had prevalence rates lessthan 15 percent, with a couple reporting ratesless than 10 percent; no state had prevalencerates greater than or equal to 20 percent. 25

  • 25

  • 25

  • 25

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Fat Cell DevelopmentEnergy in exceeds energy outBody fat stored in cells of adipose tissueNumber and size of fat cellsLate childhood/early puberty fat cell numbers increaseFat deposited in organs- inflammation, insulin resistanceEnergy out exceeds energy inFat cell size decreases; no change in number

  • Energy in > Energy out

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    During growth, fat cells increase in number.When energy intake exceeds expenditure, fat cells increase in size.When fat cells have enlarged and energy intake continues to exceed energy expenditure, fat cells increase in number again.With fat loss, the size of the fat cells shrinks but not the number.Stepped ArtFat Cell Development

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Fat Cell MetabolismLipoprotein lipase (LPL) stores triglyceridesLPL activity in obese > than lean peopleMen- abdomenWomen- breasts, hips, thighsHormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) releases and breaks down triglyceridesWeight regain: After wt. loss, LPL production increases. Fat oxidation is less efficient than fat storage.

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity Genetics & EpigeneticsCausative role of geneticsGenetic influences do seem to be involvedGenetics may determine predisposition to obesityGenes interact with:Diet and physical activitySatiety and energy balanceHuman genome

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity Genetics & EpigeneticsObesity geneCodes for the protein leptinActs as a hormone in hypothalamusPromotes negative energy balanceSuppresses appetiteIncreases energy expenditureLocations of leptin secretion

  • With leptin treatment, this mouse lost a significant amount of weight but still weighs almost one and a half times as much as a normal mouse.Without leptin, this mouse weighs almost three times as much as a normal mouse.

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity Genetics & EpigeneticsObesity gene that codes for leptin- protein that suppresses appetiteGenetic deficiency of leptin or genetic mutation- rare in obese peopleLeptin resistance Leptin rises with BMI, declines with dietingRoles in the bodyEnergy regulationImmune system, RBCs, female fat reserves

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity Genetics & EpigeneticsAdiponectinSecreted by adipose tissueInverse correlation with body fatInhibits insulin resistance, inflammation, CHDGhrelin Acts in hypothalamus, secreted by stomachPromotes positive energy balanceInverse correlation with body weight

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity Genetics & EpigeneticsPYYGI cells secrete in proportion to kcalories consumedSignals satiety and decreases food intakeIdeal dietMaintain satiating hormones-leptin, PYY, CCKMinimize appetite stimulating hormone ghrelinLow in fat and rich in fiber

  • Proteins Regulating Appetite and Energy

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity Genetics & EpigeneticsUncoupling proteinsProteins involved in energy metabolismTwo types of fatWhite adipose tissueBrown adipose tissueUncoupling proteins found in both types of fatInfluence basal metabolic rate (BMR)

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity EnvironmentEncountered daily circumstancesInteraction between environment and geneticsOvereatingPresent and past eating and activity patterns influence current body weightAvailabilityServing sizes Restaurant food

  • Selecting grapes with their high water content instead of raisins increases the volume and cuts the energy intake in half.Even at the same weight and similar serving sizes, the fiber-rich broccoli delivers twice the fiber of the potatoes for about one-fourth the energy.By selecting the water-packed tuna (on the right) instead of the oil-packed tuna (on the left), a person can enjoy the same amount for fewer kcalories.

  • Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Causes of Overweight & Obesity EnvironmentPhysical inactivityLife requires little exertionModern technologyInactivity contributes to weight gain and poor healthSedentary activities and weight gainDRI for prevention of weight gain60 minutes of moderate activity every day

  • Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Problems of Overweight and Obesity Health RisksThree indicatorsBMIWaist circumferenceDisease risk profileFactors taken into accountBeneficial weight lossHealth statusMotivation

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Problems of Overweight and Obesity Health RisksOverweight but in good healthmotivation for weight lossObese or overweight with risk factorsTwo or more risk factorsObese or overweight with life-threatening conditionRecommendation to lose weight

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Problems of Overweight and Obesity Perceptions & PrejudicesMost obese people do not successfully lose weight and maintain the lossSocial consequencesJobs, school, and in social situationsPsychological problemsEmbarrassmentOther feelings

  • Fig. 9-6, p. 285

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Problems of Overweight and Obesity Weight Cycling

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Problems of Overweight and Obesity Popular InterventionsDiet books and weight-loss programsLimited success with weight loss maintenanceFad diets- cabbage soup, shakes onlyWeight-loss productsMeal replacementsHerbal productsNo regulations for dietary supplementsLiposuction

  • OTC

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Drug Treatments for ObesityStrategies for weight reduction depend on:Degree of obesityRisk of diseaseUse drugs as part of long-term comprehensive weight-loss programsAssist with modest weight lossFour drugs approved by FDA for obesity

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Drug Treatments for ObesitySibutramine Suppresses appetiteSide effects- dry mouth, rapid heart rate, etc Warning from FDAOrlistatInhibits pancreatic lipase activity in GI tractBlocks dietary fat digestion and absorptionSide effects- gas, frequent BMs, decreased absorption of fat-sol. vitamins

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Drug Treatments for ObesityPhentermine and diethylpropionEnhance release of neurotransmitter norepinephrineMood high, appetite lowSide effects- hyperactivity, insomniaOff-label use, Stacking Sudafed (pseudoephedrine)Claritin Benadryl

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Diet Pills for sale online

    http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/herbal-remedieshttp://www.thedietadvisors.com/adipozin.htmlhttp://www.weightlossdietpills.com/?gclid=CJSlwpaCs6cCFQcBbAodkThW_w

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    How Appetite Suppressants Cause Weight Loss

    They are STIMULANTS (caffeine, ephedra, phentermine, chemicals that act like cocaine)Appetite suppressants promote weight loss by tricking the body into believing that it is not hungry or that stomach is full. They decrease appetite by increasing serotonin or catecholamine -- two brain chemicals that affect mood and appetite.

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Prescription Weight Loss Drugs/Surgery Indications

    An option for the following individuals:People with a body mass index(BMI) of 30 and above with no obesity-related conditions. A person with a BMI of 27 and above with obesity-related conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure.http://www.webmd.com/diet/weight-loss-surgery/news/20110217/fda-oks-lap-band-surgery-for-more-patients

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Surgical Treatments for Obesityhttp://www.lapband.com/en/home/http://www.webmd.com/diet/weight-loss-surgery/news/20110217/fda-oks-lap-band-surgery-for-more-patientsClinically severe obesity200,000 surgeries performed each year Reduces food capacity of stomachReduce production of ghrelinHealth-related benefitsLong-term safety and effectiveness

    Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12th Edition

    Surgical Treatments for Obesity

  • EsophagusSurgical staplesSmall stomach pouchStomachEsophagusDuodenumGastric bandJejunumStomachPortLarge intestineIn gastric bypass, the surgeon constructs a small stomach pouch and creates an outlet directly to the small intestine, bypassing most of the stomach, the entire duodenum, and some of the jejunum. (Dark areas highlight the flow of food through the GI tract; pal

Recommended

View more >