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World War One. Start of World War One. Causes of WWI Imperialism Nationalism Alliance System Militarism. Start of World War One. The southeastern region of Europe was known as a “powder keg” Many national groups in the region tried to break free from Austria-Hungary. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


World War One

World War One


Start of World War OneCauses of WWIImperialismNationalismAlliance SystemMilitarismStart of World War OneThe southeastern region of Europe was known as a powder keg Many national groups in the region tried to break free from Austria-Hungary

Start of World War OneWar BeginsJune 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian throne) is assassinated by Gavrilo Princip

Start of World War OneAustria Hungary accused Serbia of the assassination and declared warThe alliance system quickly drew more countries into the war

Start of World War OneAllied Powers (Triple Entente) BritainFranceRussiaCentral PowersGermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman EmpireThe Deadliest WarBoth sides thought it would be a quick victory, but reality quickly set inA stalemate started on the Western Front and the battle would drag on for 3 years without either side gaining a clear victoryThe Western Front saw the use of trench warfare

The Deadliest WarNew Technology made the war more lethalAirplanesArmored tanksMachine GunsPoison Gas

American NeutralityPresident Woodrow Wilson wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war.Americans were split on who to side with

American NeutralityAmerican businesses sold supplies to both sides, but a majority of trading was to the Allies and Britain

American NeutralityThe LusitaniaGerman U-boats practiced unrestricted warfareMay 7, 1915 a U-boat sank A British passenger ship the Lusitania1,200 people died (128 were Americans)

U.S. Enters The WarWilson won reelection in 1916 and promised to keep the U.S. out of the warHowever, Germany kept using its unrestricted warfare

U.S. Enters The WarZimmermann TelegramBritain intercepted a telegram from Germany to MexicoArthur Zimmermann (German Foreign Minister) proposed that Mexico enter the war on Germanys side and attack the U.S.In return Germany would help Mexico get back New Mexico, Texas, and ArizonaSoon after the U.S. entered the war (April 6, 1917)

U.S. Enters The WarRussian RevolutionMilitary defeats and food shortages led to an uprising in RussiaThe tsar was removed, which made it easier for the U.S. to enter the war because they would not be siding with a tyrantBuilding the MilitaryThe U.S. had a very large navy, but a small army (only 125,000 men)The U.S. had to mobilize quickly in order to be able to contribute to the war effort

Building the MilitaryThe U.S. did have men volunteer for service, but not enough and they had to institute a draftSelective Service Act was passed and it required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for military draftBy wars end almost four million Americans had servedBuilding the MilitaryWomen in the MilitaryWomen were not subject to the draftMore than 30,000 women volunteered for service and were nurses or performed clerical workBuilding the MilitaryA diverse forceAbout one in five recruits had been born in foreign landsAbout 380,000 African Americans also served during the warServed in all black unitsAfrican Americans were mainly held out of combat roles and instead were forced to unload ships, work in kitchens, or constructionManaging the War EffortManaging Food SuppliesHerbert Hoover was chosen to head the new Food AdministrationHe had to assure adequate food supplies for both civilians and troopsHoover urged Americans to conserve valuable food resourcesAmericans observed wheatless Mondays, and meatless TuesdaysMany grew their own victory gardens

Managing the War EffortProducing for WarThe war increased demands on American industriesGovernment ordered two million rifles and 130 million pairs of socksThe War Industries Board was set up to oversee productionManaging the War EffortFinding WorkersWar brought a Labor ShortageMen went to war and immigration declinedIn order to fill jobs, businesses turned to women and African Americans to do the workShaping Public OpinionCalling on PatriotismPresident Wilson created the Committee on Public Information, which was to deliver patriotic speeches at places like movie theaters and ball parksAlso created pro-war cartoons and posters

Shaping Public OpinionSuppressing DissentGovernment created the Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918, which could close newspapers or jail individuals that expressed antiwar viewsOne of the people arrested was Eugene V. Debs for giving a speech that urged workers not to help in the war effortShaping Public OpinionAnti-German HysteriaGerman Americans were harassed and assaulted Some were even tarred and featheredMany school stopped teaching the German language

Joining the FightThe first troops reached Europe in June of 1917John J. Pershing was chosen to be the commander of American Expeditionary ForceAmerican forces rarely fought together with British or French troopsThis was Wilsons idea, because he wanted to have a greater influence in post war talks58

Setbacks and AdvancesRussia Makes PeaceThe government that replaced the tsar was struggling to keep Russia in the warTwo million soldiers deserted the front linesVladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks (red army) to seize control of the government on November 7, 1917Lenin wanted to lead Russia on a path to communismIn March of 1918 Russia signed a peace agreement (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) and pulled out of the war.

Setbacks and AdvancesMarch 21, 1918 Germany had unleashed a series of attacks known as the peace offensiveGermany managed to break through Allied lines in Belgium and FranceBy June of 1918 Germany was less than 50 miles from Paris

Setbacks and AdvancesTurning the TideAmerican troops were used to stop the German advance and push them out of a forested area called BelleauAfter three weeks of intense fighting and heavy causalities the Americans managed to force the Germans out

Setbacks and AdvancesBy the fall of 1918 disease and lack of supplies had hurt GermanySeptember of 1918, Allied forces (over one million American soldiers) had advanced and pushed German forces backBy November of 1918, Germany had decided to seek an armistice.The ArmisticeA Harsh ArmisticeFrance and Britain dictated the termsGermany had to cancel the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, pull back their troops, and hand over its fleet of U-boatsKaiser Wilhelm II had to step down and Germany became a republicThe ArmisticeThe armistice took effect at 11 A.M. on November 11 of 1918Approximately 10 million military personal were killed (More than had dies in all the wars fought in Europe during the previous 100 years combines)France 1.3 MillionBritain 900,000Germany 1.6 MillionRussia 1.7 MillionUnited States 50,000Shaping the PeaceThe Fourteen PointsPresident Wilsons Plan for peaceWanted to prevent future warsFreedom of the seasFree TradeMilitary ReductionSelf Determination (Self Rule)League of Nations

Peace Conference in ParisBritain and France wanted to punish Germany and had no interest in Wilsons fourteen points

Peace Conference in ParisTreaty of VersaillesTerritory was taken away from Germany, including coloniesGermany had to accept full responsibility for the warHad to pay huge reparations to AlliesPlaced limits on the size and nature of Germanys militaryCreation of the League of Nations

Battle Over the League of NationsPresident Wilson fought for the ratification of the treaty and joining the league of nationsUnited states had to accept its destiny to lead the world on a new pathMany senators opposed the treaty and joining the League of Nations, including Henry Cabot LodgeCabot said that membership in the League would restrict the right of the U.S. to act independently in its own interestBattle Over the League of NationsWilsons Last BattleIn September of 1919, Wilson tried to gain support for his position by traveling 8,000 miles by train in three weeks and giving 40 speechesWilson suffered a stroke on October 2, 1919November of 1919 the Senate voted to reject the treatyThe absence of the U.S. crippled the League of Nations

Postwar TroublesInfluenza EpidemicA worldwide epidemic that took more than 500,000 lives in the U.S. alone between 1918 and 1919

Postwar TroublesLabor UnrestPeacetime brought high unemployment, because production was slowing and more people entered the workforcePostwar TroublesRed ScareMany Americans feared that Communists or Reds were behind the labor unrests, and that there would be a communist revolutionAttorney General A. Mitchell Palmer order immigrants with radical views to be deportedThese became known as Palmer Raids, which reached their height on January 2, 1920Authorities arrested more than 4,000 people in 33 cities