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DESCRIPTIONgeneral introduction to acupoints.
- 1.General introduction to acupoints
2. General introduction to acupoints
- Acupoints are the spots where qi and blood from the viscera and meridians effuse and infuse in the body surface.
3. General introduction to acupoints
- The viscera, meridians and acupoints in the interior and exterior form an organic whole with close relation and harmonious unity.
- effuse and infuse
- run out and in
meridians acupoints viscera General introduction to acupoints 4. General introduction to acupoints meridians acupoints viscera General introduction to acupoints 5.
- The Names of Acupoints
- 1.According to the pictograph
- 2.According to the location or function of human organs
- 3.According to the theories of Yin-yang,Zang-fu Organs,Channels and Collaterals,or Qi and Blood
- 4.According to the related anatomical knowledge
- 5.According to the therapeutic properties
General introduction to acupoints 6. General introduction to acupoints General introduction to acupoints acupoints Channelacupoints Extraordinaryacupoints Ashi points 7. General introduction to acupoints Channel acupoints The points distributed along the course of thefourteen channels (twelve regular channelsplusthe governor and conception vessels) arecalled the points of the fourteen channels,or channel points for short. General introduction to acupoints 8. General introduction to acupoints Channel acupoints Zhen Jiu Feng Yuan (source of acupuncture and moxibustion)compiled in the late qing dynasty recorded 361 points,which is the number of channel points still used today. General introduction to acupoints recorded 359 pointsZhen Jiu Da Cheng (great compendium of acupuncture and moxibustion)recorded 354 points respectivelyTong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing(illustrated manual of points on bronze figure) Shi Si Jing Fa Hui(elaboration of the fourteen meridians )recorded 349 pointsZhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing (the ABC classic of acupuncture and moxibustion) and Qian Jin Yi Fang (supplement to the invaluable prescriptions)it mentioned 365 points, but the actual number of points with their names recorded in the classic is around 160Huang Di Nei Jing (huangdis internal classic) 9. General introduction to acupoints Extraordinary acupoints The points that have definite locations but havenot been recognized as points of the fourteenchannels have specific names and effective indicationsand are named as extra points outside the channelsor extra points for short. Points in this category have relatively fixedindications, and most of them are indicated for somespecific disorders .General introduction to acupoints 10. General introduction to acupoints
- Ashi points actually refer to tenderness spots. Such points are marked by no fixed location, no pertaining channels and no names.
- Ashi points have no fixed location. They are actually tender spots. They often change because the affected regions vary with disease. Since they do not have fixed location, they have no names and no direct relationship with channels.
Ashi acupoints General introduction to acupoints 11. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of pointsGeneral introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects points local therapeutic effects remote therapeutic effect special therapeutic effects 12. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of pointslocal therapeutic effects This is a characteristic therapeutic property for all points, including channel points, extra points ashi-points.All points can treat the disorders of their local and adjacent locations. General introduction to acupoints 13. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of pointsremote therapeutic effect The remote therapeutic effect is a property of the channel points, especially for those of the twelve regular channel located distally to the elbow and knee joints. They are effective not only for local disorders but also for the disorders of remote locations on the course of their pertaining channels. This is what the saying the indication extends to where the meridian reaches General introduction to acupoints 14. General introduction to acupoints Rules for the effects of pointsspecial therapeutic effects Besides the above local and remote therapeutic effects, some points have certain special effects such as bi-directional regulation, general regulation, and other specific actions. General introduction to acupoints 15. General introduction to acupoints
- Special acupoints refer to the acupoints on the fourteen channels with special curative effect. A majority of the acupoints bear special effect and are commonly used in clinical treatment.
Special acupointsGeneral introduction to acupoints 16. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsGeneral introduction to acupoints crossing eight confluent Front-Mu Back-Shu eight convergent Xi-cleft lower He-sea luo-connecting yuan-source five-shu 17. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsfive-shu Five-Shu acupoints refer to Jing-Well, Ying-Spring,Shu-Stream, Jing-River and He-Sea which are fiveacupoints located on the twelve channels belowthe knees and elbows. They are situated in theabove order from the distal extremities to the elbowor knees. These five acupoints reflect the indicationof the acupoints below the knees and elbows. 18. 19. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsyuan-source Yuan-Source acupoints, the regions where the primary qi of the viscera flows by and retains, are usually located around the wrists and ankles, reflecting the pathological changes of the viscera. They are clinically used to diagnose and treat the disorders of the related viscera. 20. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsluo-connecting Luo-Connecting acupoints refer to the points where the fifteen collaterals stem from the twelve channels, the governor and conception vessels as well as the major collateral of the spleen. All the Luo-Connecting acupoints of the twelve channels are located below the elbows and knees. 21. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsXi-cleft The Xi-Cleft acupoints are the sites where qi and blood from themeridians are deeplyconverged. Each of the twelvechannels and the four extraordinary vessels (Yin link and Yang linkvessels, Yin heel and Yang heelvessels) has a Xi-Cleftacupoint on the limbs,amounting to sixteen in all. 22. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsXi-cleft Clinically Xi-Cleft acupointsare used to treat severe acute disorders of the meridians. The Xi-Cleft acupoints on the yin channels are usually usedto treat various blood syndromes and the Xi-Cleft acupoints on the yang channels are often usedto treat various pain syndromes. 23. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointseight Confluence The eight convergent acupoints refer to the eight acupoints on the twelve channels that are connected with the eight extraordinary vessels. These eight acupoints are all located below the knees and elbows and are used to treat is orders involving the face, head and trunk related to the eight extraordinary vessels. 24. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointslower He-sea The lower He-Sea acupoints refer to six acupoints on the three yang channels of the foot where qi from the six fu organs converges and are the key acupoints for the treatment of the disorders of the six fu organs. 25. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsBack-Shu The Back-Shu acupoints are located on the back and waist along the first lateral line of the bladder channel(1.5 cun lateral to the back middle line) and are the regions where qi of the viscera is infused. The distributing order of Back-Shuacupoints is similar to that of th location of the viscera. Clinically these acupoints are used to treat the disordersof the related viscera, tissues and organs. 26. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointsFront-Mu Front-Mu acupoints are those located on the chestand abdomen where qi of the viscera is infusedand converged. The location of the Front-Mu acupointsis similar to that of the related viscera.Front-Mu acupoints can be used to treat disordersof the related viscera, especially the disorders of the six fu organs.Front-Mu acupoints are usually needled with the combinationof Back-Shu acupoints. 27. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointseight influential Eight confluent acupoints, located on the trunk andfour limbs below the knees and elbows, are the regionswhere the essence of qi, blood, tendons, vessels, bones,marrow, zang organs and fu organs converges. 28. General introduction to acupoints Special acupointscrossing Crossing acupoints are those at the intersection of two or more channels. Most of them are located on the head,face and trunk, except a few which are located on the lower limbs. Crossing acupoints are clinically used to treat diseases related to the channel proper and the channels crossed with the channel proper. 29.
- Methods for Locating Points
- 1.Measurement with Anatomic Landmarks
- 1.1 Fixed Anatomic Landmarks
- 1.2 Moving Landmarks
- 2.Bone-Length Proportional Measurement
- 3.Finger Measurement
- 3.1 Middle Finger Measurement
- 3.2 Thumb Measurement
- 3.3 Four-Finger Measurement
- 4. Simplified Measurement
General introduction to acupoints 30. Methods for Locating Points Anatomic Landmarks Fixed Anatomic Landmarks five sensory organs hair nails nipples umbilicus prominences and depressions of bones and muscles 31. 32. Methods for Locating