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Page 1: 1 2 The Flowering of Romanticism 1798-1832 3 Beginning of the Period Beginning marked by the publication of Lyrical Ballads by Coleridge and Wordsworth

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Page 2: 1 2 The Flowering of Romanticism 1798-1832 3 Beginning of the Period Beginning marked by the publication of Lyrical Ballads by Coleridge and Wordsworth

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The Flowering of RomanticismThe Flowering of Romanticism

1798-1832

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Beginning of the PeriodBeginning of the Period

Beginning marked by the publication of Lyrical Ballads by Coleridge and Wordsworth.Most significant historical event of the Romantic period was the French Revolution.Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) French influence, and considered the father of romanticism.

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Lyrical BalladsLyrical Ballads

1st edition published in 17982nd edition published in 1800, contained an extensive preface, written by Wordsworth, but planned with Coleridge became the “real language of men”drew on the powers of ordinary speech

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Romantic subjectsthe natural or commonplacethe supernatural or “romantic”

Both were treated similarly to make the reader aware of the human mind and emotions.

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What does “Romantic” mean?What does “Romantic” mean?

romance - refers to the highly imaginative medieval tales of knightly adventure written in the original Roman (or romance) language: Latin.

Not love between a man and a woman as the word is used today.

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History-Revolution & ReactionHistory-Revolution & Reaction

Near the end of the 18th Century, three major revolutions disturbed the English sense of security and well-being

The American RevolutionThe French RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution

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American RevolutionAmerican Revolution

Causes English to see a cry for democracy

Loss of the thirteen colonies causes economic loss, loss of prestige and loss of confidence

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French RevolutionFrench Revolution

Being at first exhilarating to the idealists and liberals in England, it becomes a disappointment with the “September Massacre”

King Louis XVI beheads hundreds with the latest invention the guillotine.

Napoleon Bonaparte emerges as dictator

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Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution

Transforms European societyviolent in its impact on human lifeJames Watt perfected the steam engine in 1765industries that depended on traditional hand labor were converted into mills and factories where machines did the work.

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The Industrial Revolution sharply divided England into two classes

1. Wealthy property owners2. Poor class of wage earners deprived of virtually all rights and possessions

Rich got richer - Poor got poorer (almost virtually wiped out the middle class).

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RulersRulers

England suffered from lack of leadershipKing George III 1760-1811 declared insane in 1811 - Son takes over throne from 1811-1820Prince of Wales who acted as RegentYears of regency - time of lavish social display, indulgence of upper class

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End of the PeriodEnd of the Period

Marked by the death of Sir Walter Scott

and the passage of the first reform bill in Parliament

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Literature - Romantic WritersLiterature - Romantic Writers

were affected by the promise and disappointment of the French Revolutionwere affected by the controlling effects of the Industrial RevolutionRomanticism sought to free itself from the rules and standards of eighteenth-century literature and to open up new areas of vision and expression

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The Industrial Revolution’s exploitation of the working class underlie the romantic writers’ love of the unspoiled natural world and remote country settings

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Literature - CharacteristicsLiterature - Characteristics

Emphasized imagination and emotionConcerned with the particularsvalued of the individualtook a revitalized interest in medieval subjects and settingsMost romantic writers saw themselves as reacting against the thought and literary practice of their predecessors

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Writers - First Generation of PoetsWriters - First Generation of Poets

Born before period beganBlakeWordsworth Coleridge

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William BlakeWilliam Blake

1757-1827Lived most of his life in LondonHe was an engraver and illustratorBelieved innocence and experience were contrary states of the human soul.Spent final years of his life in poverty.

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William WordsworthWilliam Wordsworth

1770-1850lived longer than any other romantic poetfelt there was a deep kinship between nature and the soul of humankindgreatest nature poet

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Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge

1772-1834Brought magic to his poetry by including the supernaturalNever completed his college degreeBriefly served in the militaryPlanned a utopian community in AmericaHis addiction to opium ruined his friendship with WW - reconciled later in life

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Writers - Second Generation of PoetsWriters - Second Generation of Poets

major inspiration from Wordsworth & Coleridge felt the founders of English had given values to an unjust & reactionary societymoral & political disillusionment

Byron ShelleyKeats

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George Gordon, Lord ByronGeorge Gordon, Lord Byron

1788-1824born of aristocratic familyattended prestigious private schools & universitiesleft England because of social pressures against his unconventional personal lifedied prematurely in distant Mediterranean country

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Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley

1792-1822born of aristocratic familyattended prestigious private schools & universitiesleft England because of social pressures against his unconventional personal lifedied prematurely in distant Mediterranean country

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John KeatsJohn Keats

1795-1821 Studied medicine at age 15Youngest of the second generationfirst to die of tuberculosis in a distant Mediterranean countryBarely 5 feet tall

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The EndThe End