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    Airservices International Sustainable Aviation Forum

    24 February 2015

    Dr. Susan M Pond AM

  • Global Commercial Aviation Industry

    Visualization of global flights http://callumprentice.github.io/

    ~ 100,000 flights per day; CAGR 3-5%

  • Jet Fuel MSDS

    Energy dense mixture of hydrocarbons (43-48 MJ/kg) Saturated straight & branched chains + aromatics Meets ASTM Intl. D1655 specifications 10% global oil consumption 1.5 B barrels pa burn by commercial aviation 2% anthropogenic CO2e; ~ 700 Mt Significant air quality impacts of major airports

    Synonyms Aviation Turbine Fuel, Kerosene Turbine Fuel, Kerosene, Jet A-1 Fuel, Jet A Fuel

    Molecular Formula Unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials (UVCB)

    Components Cas No Weight % Kerosene ( C9-16) 8808-20-6 100 Naphthalene 91-20-3 0-3

  • IATA Targets to Mitigate Emissions

    Average increase in fuel efficiency, 1.5 % pa Cap on net aviation CO2e from 2020 (C neutral growth) Reduction in net aviation CO2e by 2050, relative to 2005 Solutions based on 4 pillars

    Improved technologies, including Jet A containing synthesized hydrocarbons (ASTM D7566)

    More efficient aircraft operations Improved infrastructure & systems, e.g. air traffic control Market-based measures to fill any CO2e gap


  • Critical Success Factors for ASTM D7566 Certified Jet Fuel Industry

    Compatible with aircraft, engines, infrastructure (drop-in) Fuel meets D7566 specifications conventional + synthetic

    blended components Sustainable globally harmonized criteria preferable Economic viability - eventual minimal or no cost differential Policy stability & alignment across all transport modes Innovation ecosystem support for scale-up/deployment Cooperation & communication across entire spectrum of

    customers, corporations and government Public private partnerships e.g. CAAFI, aireg, ITAKA Global and country targets

  • FT September


    Conventional Fuel

    HEFA July 2011

    DSHC June 2014




    Conventional Refinery Processes

    Jet Fuel Blending


    Crude Oil

    FT 50%

    HEFA 50%

    SIP 10%

    Slide courtesy of Mark Rumizen, US Federal Aviation Administration

    ASTM D7566 Approved Jet Fuels

  • .. We draw added customers fo Co-Products Create Economic Viability Product mix set by feedstock & process chemistry

    High value chemicals Lubricants; de-icing fluid Diesel for trucks/buses etc.

  • More than 1600 flights/20 airlines thus far Some regular city pair flights; Lufthansa 1,200 flights

    Hamburg & Frankfurt Mostly HEFA from used cooking oil, oil seeds, algae

    ASTM D7566 Fuel Passenger Flights

    Lufthansa Frankfurt to Berlin with 10% DSHC (Amyris Total)

    Sep 2014

    Used cooking oil, 13 April 2012 Qantas Shell Aviation Biofuel Feasibility Study, June 2013

    Biodiesel Ground Transport, May 2012 Actively progressing opportunities for Australia

  • Country Targets Driving Innovation

    Brazil IATA Targets EU Flight Path 2050 Objectives - 70% reduction

    CO2e/passenger km Germany 10% alternative jet fuel by 2025 Israel replace share of oil in transportation

    sector by 60% by 2025 UK Sustainable Fuels UK Roadmap AJF

    produced in UK reduce CO2e up to 24% by 2050 US FAA & CAAFI - 5% alternative jet fuel (1B

    gallons) per annum by 2018

  • Global Green Diesel & HEFA Production


    30 M Gallons CA (Est. 2015)

    Diamond Green Diesel

    137 M Gallons LA

    Sinopec 6 M Gallons


    Neste Oil 240 M Gallons


    REG 75 M Gallons


    Eni 100 M Gallons


    Neste Oil 114 M Gallons


    Neste Oil 240 M Gallons Netherlands

    Petrixo 310 M Gallons

    Fujairah, U.A.E. (Est. TBD)

    SG Preston 120 M Gallons

    OH (Est. 2017)

    UPM 38 M Gallons


    Slide courtesy of Michael Lakeman, Boeing

    Jet blends from green diesel could supply 1% of global jet demand

  • Copyright 2007- NextEnergy Ltd.





    Collaboration announced 2010 Binding commitments, 2012 Feedstock, ~ 565,000 MT London

    rubbish co-benefit for city 39 M gallons (0.15 GL) FT jet &

    diesel + naphtha Thames estuary site, Pre-FEED

    complete Project construction start 2016

  • Pending ASTM D7566 Approvals Acronym Synthetic Process ASTM D7566

    Approved ATJ Alcohol to jet (Sep 2015) CH Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (2016) DSHC Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbons (C10) FT Fischer-Tropsch FT-SKA FT Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics FT-SPK FT Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene HDCJ Hydroprocessed Depolymerized Cellulosic Jet (2016) HEFA Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids SAK Synthetic Aromatic Kerosene SK Synthetic Kerosene SKA Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics SPK Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene

  • New, Different & Hot in Deployment of Aviation Biofuels in 2014

    Boeing & SAA, Project Solaris, energy rich tobacco plants

    SAS, Lufthansa, KLM & Statoil agreement for regular supply at Oslo Airport

    First flights for SAS and Norwegian Air with aviation biofuel from used cooking oil

    Southwest Airlines, Red Rock Biofuels agreement on aviation biofuel - forest residues

    UOP and Petrixo Oil & Gas to produce green jet fuel and diesel in UAE

    US Navys Air Systems Command F/A-18 supersonic flight on alcohol-to-jet

    RAN announced plans to run 50 vessels on 50/50 biofuels by 2020 & participate in 2016 GGF

    Jim Lane, Editor Biofuels Digest www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2015/02/19

  • From April 2015, Military diesel (F-76) and jet fuel (JP-5) may contain synthesized hydrocarbons Synthetic hydrocarbons in bulk fuels now part of

    supply contracts By 2020, 50% energy will come from alternative

    sources Great Green Fleet in 2016

  • Low Carbon Transport on the Move

    Save the Date

    Sydney 14 May 2015