9.4 effects of wwi

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9.4 The Impact of World War I

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9.4 The Impact of World

War I

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14 Point Peace Plan• President Wilson proposed his idea for peace known as the

Fourteen Points. • These were 14 ideas to improve the status of the world.• His most famous point was the creation of a League of

Nations. This league would gather and try to work out problems peacefully without war.

• This plan was used as propaganda before the war was up to convince Germany to surrender.

• Pamphlets dropped behind enemy line. • Germans believed that this plan would be the basis of a

peace compromise.

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League of Nations• Members agree to reduce weapons to a level

determined by immediate threats• AGREE TO PROTECT EACH OTHER AGAINST

AGRESSION • Colonies of the Central Powers would be

supervised by the League members

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Peace Conference in Paris• This conference was started in January 1919.• It was held at the Palace of Versailles. • The conference was ruled by the “Big Four” as they were

called.1. Woodrow Wilson United States2. David Lloyd George Great Britain

3. Georges Clemenceau France4. Vittorio Orlando Italy

• France and England both wanted to PUNISH Germany…but there were no German representatives at the conference.

• Russia was not invited…why not?

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Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.Communist USSR by 1922.

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Treaty of Versailles• This was the official treaty that ended the war. • It was signed by Germany on June 28th, 1919.• Germany accepted full responsibility for the war• The treaty did not allow Germany to have a big army.• No air force and no soldiers west of the Rhine• It also made Germany pay reparations that totaled $33

billion to allied nations.• Meant to keep the German economy weak for a long time.

• This treaty fueled German hatred toward Europe and would lead to WWII.

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Signing in the Hall of Mirrors

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German losses after WWI

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Austria’s Losses After the War

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Senate Rejects the Treaty• Time to vote on the Treaty in the US Congress• opposition argued that the League of Nations was an “entangling alliance” that the Founders argued against• The Senate refused to ratify the treaty.• President Wilson traveled the country trying to gain support.• He gave 30 speeches in 3 weeks. • He collapsed from exhaustion in Colorado and had a massive stroke.• When he left office in 1921, the U.S. still did not recognize the Treaty of Versailles.

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1920 1st Assembly of the L of NUSA was not there

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U.S. after WWI• Soldiers returned home as heroes however, there

were not many job opportunities.• 2 million men back looking for work but the war

factories were shutting down…recession begins• Strikes and riots were common due to the rise of

inflation.– Seattle General Strike– Boston Police Strike (Govenor Calvin Coolidge breaks it)– The Steel Strike (350,000 steel workers)

• Racial tension increased. • Terrorist bombings threatened to weaken our country.

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Red Summer of 1919

• There were 25 riots that broke out across our country.

• Whites came back to find blacks had moved north and taken their jobs (when blacks lost jobs they blamed whites, and vice versa)

• The worst violence occurred in the Chicago race riot

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Chicago Race Riot of 1919• African American man crosses the “unwritten”

segregation line at a public beach• Whites begin throwing rocks at him and he drowns• Police called, no whites arrested, one black man is

arrested for minor offenses• Word spreads of what happens, fights break out…• The riot in Chicago lasted 2 weeks.• 38 people died and 500 were injured.• Membership in the NAACP increased after this was

over.

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“[We] only caught a ten-year-old Negro boy. [We] took his clothes off, and burned them. [We] burned his tail with

lighted matches, made him step on lighted matches, urinated on him, and sent him running off naked with a couple of slaps

in the face”

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Detroit Race Riot

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Tulsa Riots

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Red Scare• The riots of 1919 lead to a fear of a Communist

takeover (Red Scare).• Communism became associated with hostility,

disloyalty, and treason.• Many “home made bombs” were found in the mail

or detonated at buildings. Communists were blamed.

• Attorney General Mitchell Palmer house was damaged and he led the charge declaring the country was experiencing a revolution (like Russia)

• The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was created to find these communists.

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Attorney General Palmer’s House

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1919• In late April 1919, about 36 mail bombs were

mailed to a wide cross-section of prominent politicians (including the Attorney General of the United States), justice officials and financiers, including John D. Rockefeller.

• June 1919…eight bombs exploded in 8 American cities within minutes of one another. Another 30 bombs were intercepted through the US Mail.

• 9/11 was not the first terrorist attacks on the US

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Anarchists Bomb Wall Street New York 1920 – kills 40

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Uncle Sam (to Labor Party Representative) "You did splendidly, my boy, for a first attempt, but, for your own good and that of the country, get rid of that dangerous

companion [anarchy] of yours....

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