al-andalus & christian kingdoms 2ºa
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The early history
By the early 8 century, the Muslims had expanded far beyond their original territory the Arabian Peninsula, and controlled most of North Africa. In 711 they crossed over to the Iberian Peninsula.
Was also made possible by a civil war between rival groups of thenobility.
Muslims defeated the Visigoths King Roderic in the Battle of Guadalete. However Tariq did not hand power over to their Visigoth alliesthey occupird mearly all of the Iberian Peninsula. The Muslims never fullyconquered the mountainous regions.
The Muslims called their new territory Al- Andalus. Crdoba its capital the emirate was dependent on the Umayyad caliphate in Damascus.
II were sleeping when they killed all my family. It was the next day when I noticed these. Because of that, I scaped to the IberianPeninsula.
This travel was very difficult because I can nottold that I were the prince to anyone. When I arrive,I stay in a small city because I wantedthat the time pass. After a few years, I foundedthe independant Empire of Cordoba.
Describe theinvasion routestaken by theMuslims.
Which parts of the IberianPeninsula were not conqueredby the Muslims?
The Caliphate of Crdoba (929-
The caliphate of Crdoba was a period ofexcepcional achievement in Al-Andalusfollowed the fundation of the caliphate ofCrdoba in 929. Created by Abd al RahmanIII who became its caliph- the supremepolitical and rerligious authority.
Abd al Rahman II ruled through a chiefminister (hajib), ministers (vizers) and provinicial governors (walis).
The caliphate of Crdoba was one of theworlds great states in the 10th century: Abd al-Rahman III strengthened hisauthority by repressing internal revoltsand resisting the Cristian Kingdoms.The city of Crdoba was one of the mostpopulous in the world.Was a great cultural centre.
QUESTIONS PAGE 81. EXERCISES 6, 7
6. The room that was depicted was theprincipal one.
7. Yes but womens werent really present. 8. was a Lorraine born monk, diplomat administrator, and monastic reformer, at the caliphs court too.
The fragmentation of Al- Andalus
INDEX:The Taifa States
The Almoravids and The Almohads
The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
The taifa states
The taifas states where political and ethnic
divisions that separated Al-Andalus into pieces.
This happened because of the collapse of the
Caliphate of Crdoba in 1031.
There were many conflicts between the taifas.
The larger taifas, as Seville and Toledo fought
with each other, and also for the control of
Christians took advantage of the disassembly
of Al-andalus and they attacked them and
forced the rulers to pay parias (tributes).
As the Christians were advancing very fast
Muslims asked for help to the Almoravids
The almoravids and the almohads
In the 11th Century Al-Andalus was continually under attack as a result of the fragmentation of the
Muslim states. Rulers of the taifas asked for help to the Berbers in north Africa.
Muslim rulers first asked for help to the Almoravids in 1086.Even they stopped a little the advance
of the Christians, it was not enough. In 1140 there was another fragmentation in many small taifas.
The almohads were the successors of the Almoravids in north Africa.
Al-Andalus requested their help over 1147. They could resist Christian attacks but again
unsuccessfully. They continued to expand in 12th and 13th centuries.
In 13th century , the Christians created a large army between many kingdoms and they achieved a
glorious victory over Almohads in the battle of Navas de Tolosa. As the Almohad authority
collapsed, the Christian armies conquered all Spain except Granada
Activity 6 page 83
The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada was the last Muslim territory on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom was not militarily strong but it was very prosperous thanks to trade and
agriculture. Christians allowed them to survive because it payed them large amounts of
tributes, and military assistance.
The Nasrid rulers created Alhambra which was built during 14th and 15th centuries.
The Kingdom was weakened by internal conflicts.
It was finally conquered by the Catholic Kings in 1492.
Activity 7 page 83
Life in Al-andalus and evolution
of andalusi architecture
Life in Al-andalus
Conquerors: The conquerosrs and their descendants became the most powerful groups in theirv society.
Arabs: Were the land owning of aristrocazi, who also held political power.
Berbers: From the North Africa, helped to conquer the Iberian Peninsula.
As Muslims conquered they let jews and christianspractice their religion, but only if they paid taxes:Mozarabs: Cristians who did not convert into Islams.Jews: Were merchants artisans and schelars.
Evolution of andalusi
architectureAndalusi architecture had different stages: Caliphate architecture: The most exceptional building wasthe Great Mosque of Cordoba. And also the palace at Medina Azahara, near Cordoba.Taidfa architecture: The ryulers of the taifa states builtfortresses, like the castler in Mlaga. They also builtpalaces such us the Aljaefera palace in Zaragoza.Almohad palace: Buildings were fairly plain in the NorthcAfrican style. They had decorative patterns. The Giralda and the tower of Gold were god examples.Nasrid architecture: Abundant decoration was shown, walls were covered in plasterwork and ceramics. Thealhambra and the Generalife in Granada are exceptionalexamples.
What is the most important building in Spain
14 abril 1126 10 diciembre 1198
The most important buildings on the evolution of the Andalusi
Explain the following terms:Arabs:
When did Averroes bron and died?
Averros (14 April 1126 10 December 1198) I was born in Crdoba in Andalusia. I
was a Muslim polymath from Andalusia. I was a scholar of Greek and Islamic
philosophy. I also studied Islamic theology, law, politics, classical music, and the
sciences of medicine, psychology, physics, astronomy, geography and mathematics.
I was influenced by the ideas of Aristotle. My philosophy was often criticised by
fellow Muslims. Im most famous for my commentaries of Aristotle's works.
I began studying medicine in Seville, then I began my career with the help of Ibn
Tufail, later I was granted many honors and became a Qadi in Seville in 1169, and two
years later I became the Qadi of Crdoba. In 1195, I wrote a paper about how I
thought philosophy was less than useful for the discovery of religious truth. The Caliph
imprisoned me and exiled me from the country and I died in 1198.
Christian survival in the north:The Muslims conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula. In the 8th and 9th centuries, a group of small Christian states were precursors of the later Hispanic kingdoms:-Cantabrian, the Kingdom of Asturias was created.-The Pyrenees, the Kingdom of Navarre was estabished, while the Aragonese and Catalan counties emerged further east.
THE ORIGINS OF CHRISTIAN INSPAIN
For nearly 800 years, Al-Alandalus an a series of Christian states existed together on the Iberian Peninsula. They traded and exchanged knowledge, also frequendlyfougth each other. Al-Andalus was stronger up to the 100th century. The Christian king grew in power and began to take Muslims teritorries.
Activities:Page 96; 1 and 2
The kingdom of Asturias:In the early 8th century, an Asturian or Visigoth noble called Pelayo established the Kingdom of Astirias.Cobadonga in 722 .Although Cobadonga was only a minor comfrontation it was later considered the start of the Christian Reconquest of Al-Andalus.
Over 2 centuries, the kingdom of Asturias expanded southwards into Al-Andalus. Pelayos successors ,Oviedo become its capital city .Alfonso 3th took advantage of conflicts in the Emirate of Crdoba.In the 10th century the capital was moved to the city of Len, the kingdom become known as the kingdom of Len .
Activities:Page 97; 5 and 6
Counties and kingdoms of the Pyrenees : The Pyrenees formed part of the Carolingian empire after defensive
fronter.Carolingian empire broke apart in the 9th century,3 separated religion developed:
Navarre:in the erly nine century ,count Inigo Arista expelled frontiers troops from Pamplona and declare him self the Kingdom of Pamplona.
Aragon: the counties of Aragn Soarable and Ribagorza broke away from Carolingian control. In 820 count Aznar Galndez rose to power in Aragn
Catalan Counties: At the end of the 9 century, the count of urgell, Wilfredo the HAIRY, expand3d his territory and won independence from Frankish rule.
Catalan counties mantained good relation with the Caliphs of Crdoba. This help to established a period of estyability in the countuies. They consolated thei independence in the 10th century.
The christians kingdoms of Leonand Castile
During the 11 , 12, 13 centuries, thiskingdoms were linked. Theywerent like the modern states:
They expanded is they conquerednew territories, but they were alsodivided as a result of roya