al-andalus & christian kingdoms 2º d+f
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THE EARLY HISTORY OF
The Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
By the early 8th century, Muslims
expanded from the Arabian peninsula
and controlled most of North Africa.
In 711 they crossed to the Iberian
Characters In 711, one faction requested help from MUSA, a Muslim ruler in North Africa.
The muslims defeated the Visigoths King
Roderic in the Battle of Guadalete.
However, Musa did not have power to their
Abd al-Rahman I, he founded the
independent Emirate of Crdoba in 756.
THE EARLY HISTORY OF
In a few years they
conquered nearly all the
Iberian Peninsula. In the
mid-8th century most
members of Umayyad
1. Which parts of the Iberian
Peninsula were not conquered
by the Muslims.
2. Who was Musa?
3. What does Abd al-Rahman
4. At what century does the
5. What name does the Muslims
put to the capital?
THE CALIPHATE OF
It was a period of exceptional achievement in Al-Alandalus followed thefoundation of the Caliphate of Crdoba in 929. This was created by Abd al-Rahman III who became its caliphate.
Abd al-Rahman III ruled through a chief minister, ministers and provincialgovernors. He strengthened his authority by repressing internak revolts andresisting the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian peninsula.
The city of cordoba was one of themost populus in the world
Was the height of alandalus civilisation, when cordoba was a great cultural
The role of the caliph weakenedgreatly from the late 10th century. A
general called Al- mansur becamecaliph in 976
Who created the caliphate of Cordoba?
Do you think Baixeras painting was a realistic reprsentation of the caliphscourt? For example, were a woman
The taifa statesAfter the collapse of the caliphate of Crdoba in 1031, Al-andalus Split into many independent states called
there were many conflicts between them. The larger states, like seville and toledo, fought against each other to take control of
Which areas did
around the year 1100?
And in 1300?
the Christian kingdoms took advantage of the lack of unity of al-andalus. They attacked the taifas and forced them to pay parias
The Christian kingdoms were a growing threat to the taifas, especially after they took Toledo in 1085. The following year the Muslims called for help of the
almoravids, who had established a Berber empire in northern Africa.
Which of this cities
did the muslimsstill hold
at the start of
the 14th century:
Valencia, Cordoba , Granada?
The almoravids and the Almohads
From the 11 century, al-andalus was continually on the defensive.Twice al-andalus received military assistance from Berber Muslim
empires in North Africa.-the almoravids crossed over the Iberian peninsula in 1086. They
took over most of the taifa states. Although they won some victories against the Christian kingdoms. They fragmented into
small taifa states in 1140s.
A DIVERSE SOCIETY
The Conquerors and their descendant became the most powerfullgroups in Andalus society
ARABSFrom Middle East.Were the land-owning aristocracy.Held polithycal power.
BERBERFrom North Africa.Also helped to conquer the Iberian Peninsula.However, they recived less land and whealth than the Arabs.Sometimes rebelled against theirauthority.
MOZARABS AND JEWISH
Initially muslims were a small minority of population but however many christians converted
Mozarabs Were christians who
did not convertv toislam
Mozarabs left the AL-ANDALUS to live inChristian north.
The Jews Were merchants, artisans
and scholars. They lived in separate
neighbourhoods calledJewish quarters.
1.- Caliphate architecture. The most excepcional buildingWas great Mosque of Cdoba. The palace at MedinaAzahara, near Crdoba, was also a fine example of caliphate architecture.
2.- Tarifa architecture. The rulers of the tarifa states built fortresses, like thecastle in Mlaga. They also built palaces, such as the Aljaefera Palace inZaragoza.
3.- Almohad architecture. Buildings were fairly plain in the north Africanstyle, but they had decorative patterns. The Giralda and the Tower of Goldin Seville were outstanding examples pf Almohad architecture.
4.- Nasrid architecture. Abundant decoration was revived. Walls werecovered in plasterwork and ceramics.The Alhambra and the Generalife in granada are exceptionalexamples.
1.- Describe the social structure of Al-Andalus. Was it an equal society? Explain your answer.
2.- Explain the following terms:
The origins of Christian
1.1Christian survival in
In Cantabria, the kingdom ofAsturias was created. In the Pyrenees, the Kingdom ofNavarre was established. Whilethe Aragonese and Catalancounties emerged further East.
From 711, the muslims conquered most of the IberianPeninsula, but they never took control of the north. Inthe 8th and 9th centuries, a group of small Christiansstates were precursors of the later Hispanic kingdoms:
1.2 Christian survival in the
For nearly 800 years, Al Andalus and a series, of christian states existed together on the IberianPeninsula.Al- Andalus was stronger up to the 10th century. From then on, the Christian kings grew in powerand began to take Muslim territories.
The Kingdom of Asturias
In the early 8th century, anAsturian or Visigoth noble calledPelayo established the Kingdom ofAsturias. Pelayo and his followersdefeated the Muslims in the Battleof Covadonga in 722. That was thestarted of the ChristianReconquest of Al- Andalus.
Over two centuries, the Kingdom ofAsturias expanded into Al- Andalus.Under Pelayos successors, Oviedobecame its capital city. Alfonso III(886-910) took advantage ofconflicts in the emirate of Cordobato advance into the Duero rivervalley.
In the 10th century, thecapital wasmoved tothe city of Leon, and the kingdombecameknown as the Kingdomof Leon.
Counties and Kingdoms of the
The Pyreenes formed part of the Carolingian Empire afterCarlemagne established the Hispanic March as a defensive frontireregion to defend his Empire against the Muslims. In the 9th century
the Carolingian Empire broke apart and developed 3 regions:
1. Navarre the countIigo Aristaexpelled theFranquish formPamplona and declared himselfKing of Pamplona. That later becamekingdom of Navarre.
2. Aragn - thecounties of Aragon, Sobrarbe andRibagorza broke away. In 820 CountAznar Galindez rose to power.
3. The Catalan counties thecount Wilfredo the Hairywon the independencefrom the Franquish. Theymaintained good relationswith the Caliphs of Cordoba. Theindependence consolidatedin the 10th century.
Act 1, 2 page 96
Act 5 page 97
Esther Prez, Maia Barba y Helena Vega
The kingdoms of Len and
During the 11, 12 and 13 centuries.During that time, Len and Castile where closely linked toeach other.They expanded if theyconquered new territories.Sometimes, they were ruled bythe same monarch.Sometimes formed separatedkingdoms.
Count Fernn Gonzlez (930-970),established his authority over all
Castile. He was a vassal of the king of Len.
Other important characters:Fernando I.Alfonso VIII.Fernando II.Fernando III.
Kingdom of Len was founded in 910County of castile was created in 951.In 1035 the county of Castile became
the Kingdom of Castile.In 1230 the kindom of Len and the
kingdom of Castile fusionated and became the Crown of Castile
1.- Who was Fernn Gonzlez?2.- Explain the differencebetween the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Castile. 6.-When were Len and Castile definitietly united?
Of page 98
Jimena DinastySancho III counties of Aragn,
Castile and part of Len.Death: in 1035
Garca Snchez: inherited Navarre. Fernando I: Inherited Castile.Ramiro I: Inherited Aragn.
Gonzalo: The counties of Sobrabe and Ribagorza.
The last king of Jimena dinastywas Sancho VII the strong.Navarre was conquered by
Fernando the Catholic.
The county of Aragn became partof the Kingdom of Navarre.
When Sancho III of Navarredied, his son Ramiro became
Ramiro I, the first king of aragn
Ramiros son, Sancho Ramirez reunitedthe kingdoms of Aragn and Navarre.
Ramn Berenguer IV, count of Barcelona, became engaged to
marry Petronilla of Aragn.This united Aragn and the Ctalan
countries. (Crown of Aragn)
9. What do the striped areas in the timeline indicate?
10. What happened to thekingdoms of Navarre and Aragn