al-andalus & christian kingdoms 2º b
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The conquest of the iberian peninsula
By the early 8 century, the Muslims hadexpended. In 711 they crossed over, tothe Iberian Peninsula.
-In part, the Muslims conquest of theIberian Paninsula across theMediterranean region.- However it was also made possible by a civil war between rival groups of theVisgoths nobility.
The muslims called their new territoryAl-Andalus, and made Crdoba itscapital.
The Muslims defeated theVisigoth King Roderic in the
Battle of Guadalete.The Muslims never fully
conquered the mountanousregions of the north west, which had a very different
climate from the Mediterraneanenvironment that the Muslims
The independent emirate of
4rAbd al-Rahman I foundedthe independent Emirate of Crdoba in 756. The emir
of Crdoba wasindependent, but he
accepted the religoussupremacy of the caliph.
Roderic was a Visigothic kingbetween the years 710 and
711. He was defeated by theMuslims in the Battle of Guadalete, by a betrayalbetween the visigoths
oponents of the own king. He was born 688 and died in 711.
Abd al-Rahman I was a prince of the Umayyad
dynasty who, in 756, after a various events, became thefirst independent emir of
Crdoba, founding the Umawidynasty there.
(pag 80 ex: 2,3,4.)
1. Which parts of the Iberian Peninsula where not conquered bythe Muslims?
2. Why do you think the Muslims chose Crdoba as their Capital?Suggest several reasons.
3. Which territories belonged to the caliphate in the 10thcentury?
THE CALIPHATE OF CORDOBA
A period of exceptionalachievements in Al Andalus
followed the foundation of theCaliphate of Cordoba in 929. This was created by Abd al-
Rahman III , Who became itscaliph (the supreme religious
and political authority)
Abd al-Rahman III ruled through a chief minister (hajib), ministers (viziers)and provincial governors.
The caliphate of Cordoba was a worlds great state in the 10th century:
Abd al-Rahman III strengthened his authority by resisting the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.
The city of Cordoba became a giant marketplace for products from all over the world.
Cordoba was a great cultural centre, home to many philosophers, astronomers, doctors, musicians and poets.
The role of the caliph weakened greatly from the late 10th century.
Hisham II (11 years old) became caliph in 976, but a general called Al-Mansur became the real ruler of Al- Andalus. He conducted raids, or razziars, on Christian territories.
There were internal conflicts after Al-Mansurs death in 1002 until the end of the caliphate in 1031. Big kingdoms were called Caliphate and small kingdom Taifa
Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhamad was born in Cordoba Medina. He was the first caliph of Cordoba. One curiosity
is that his second name al-Nasir li- din Allah means the one that made triunf in the religion of God
Abderramn III (Or Abd al-Rahman) was the eighth sovereign Umayyad of Muslim Spain and first of them
took the title of caliph (Cordoba, 891 - 961). He acceded to the throne in the year 912, when he was only 21,
designated by its grandfathers to happen to him with preference to its own children; And in 929 he made
himself proclaim caliph, breaking the last symbolic link that united him with the Caliphate of the Abbasids.
ABD AL-RAHMAN III
1. Explain the differences between this terms and match them with the characters.
Razzias and pariasHajib and vizier
Abd al-Rahman IIIAl-Mansur
The Fragmentation of Al-Andalus
By: Luis Garca, Gins Moratalla, Maipi
Gmez, Mara Cascudo
THE TAIFA STATE
Introduction: After 1031, al-Andalus split intonumerous fragmented kingdoms or small
emirates/states called taifas.Content: The Umayyad dynasty, controlled the fortunesof al-Andalus from 756, came to an end with the fall of
Cordoba in 1031.Questions:
Pag 82 ex 4:Pag 82 ex 1:
THE ALMORAVIDS AND THE ALMOHADS
From the 11th century, Al-Andalus was continually on the defensive as a result of thepolitical fragmentation of the Muslim states and the rise of the Christian kingdoms.Muslim empires where a much stricter version of Islam was practrised:-The Almoravids crossed over the Iberian Peninsula in 1086. They won some victoriesagainst the Christian kingdoms. The Almoravisds domination did notlast for very long, itseparated into many small taifa states in the 1440s.- The Almohads were successor of Almoravids and crossed over in 1147. Chrisitiankingdoms continued to expand in the 12th and 13th centuries.- page 82 ex 6 and 7
The Nasrid Kingdom of
He Kingdom wasnt military strong but was prosperous thanks toTrade and agriculture. Granada was an independent state because Castilleallowed them. The Nasrid rulers paid Alhambra.The Kingdom was weaked and finally conquered by Catholic Monarchs in 1492QuestionsWhat was the Last Muslim Kongdom? How did it end?Apart from the conquest of Granada, what else happened in 1492?
Bobadi: also known as Mouhamad XI, the last king, member of Nasrid Dynasty, Calledby Christians Bobadil. He governed between 1451 and 1454. He was son of Mouhamad VIII. Defeated in 1452 by Mouhamad IX. He singed a truce that was badfor Granada and He loosed his political partys. HE runned away from Granada in 1454.
Life in Al-andalusA diverse society
The ArabsThe BerbersThe MozarbsThe Jews
Stages of Andalusi architectureCaliphate architecture
Taifa architectureAlmohad architecture
The GiraldaNasrid architecture
Life in Al-Andalus
The conquerors and their descendants became the most powerfulgroups in Andalusi society.
The Arabs were the land-owning aristocracy.The Berbers helped to conquer the Iberian Peninsula.
Christians and Jews were allowed to practice their rerligion as long as they paid taxes:
-The Mozarbs were Christians who did not convert to Islam.-The Jews were merchants, artisans and scholars.
STAGES OF ANDALUSI ARCHITECTURE
Caliphate architecture Nasrid architectureThe Giralda Taifa architecture
1.Pag 85 ex 1.2. Pag 85 ex 2.3. Pag 85 ex 3.
THE ORIGINS OF CHRISTIAN SPAIN
INTRODUCTION:From 711, the muslims conquered most of the IberianPeninsula, but they never took full control of the north. In the 8th and 9th centuries the later Hispanic Kingdomswere formed.For nearly 800 years, Al-Andalus and a series of Christian states trade and exchanged knowledge, but they alsofrequently fough each other. Al-Andalus was stronger up to the 10th century. From then on, the Christian kingsgrew in power and began to take muslim territories.
STAGES & CONTENTS
- The kingdom of AsturiasIn the early 8th century, a noble called Pelayo established the kingdom of Asturias. Pelayo defeated the Muslims in the battle of Covadonga in 722, it was later considered the start of theChristian Reconquest of Al-Andalus.Under Pelayos successors Oviedo became itscapital city. In the 10th century , the capital was moved to thecity of Len , and the kingdom became known as the Kingdom of Len.
- Counties and kingdoms of the pyrenees:The Pyrenees formed of the Carolingian Empire after Charlemagneestablished the Hispanic March as a defensive frontier region to defended his empire against the Muslims. When the Carlolingian Empire broke apart, three separate regions developed.NAVARRE, ARAGN and THE CATALAN COUNTIES.
Navarre. Count Iigo Arista expelled Frankish troops frojm Pamplona and decleared himself King of Pamplona.
Aragn. The counties of Aragn, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza broke away fromCarolingian control
The Catalan counties. Wifredo the Hairy, expanded his territories and won independence from Frankish role.
I am Pelayo and I was borned in 685. I was the first monarchof Asturias.Me and my followers defeated the Muslims in the battle of Covadonga . This event took place in Covadonga in 772. Wefought against the armies of Al-Andalus. We won and thiswas known as the Christian reconquest.
Thanks to me and my armies, we could gained territoriesthrough the south.
I died in Cangas de Oris in 737 like a Spanish heroe.
1- Describe the relationships between Al-Andalus and the Christian territories.
2- Which Christian counties and Kingdoms existon the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th centuries?
3- What did the name of the kingdom of Asturias changed to? Why?
2. The emergence of theChristian Kingdom
By : Alejandro Luque, Jara Garca and Patricia
From the 12th century, Navarre was ruled by Jimena Dynasty. Sancho III, whoruled Navarre, a