al-andalus & christian kingdoms 2ºc
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The early history of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus & Christian Kingdoms 2C
The conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
By the early 8th century, muslimsexpanded on theArabian Peninsula, and controlled most of North Africa. In 711 they crossed theIberian Peninsula.
Muslims conquestof the Iberian
Peninsula was a continuation of
Islamic expansionacross the
It was also madepossible by a civil war
between rival groups of the Visigoth nobility. In
711, one factionrequested help from
Musa, a Muslim ruler in North Africa.
The Muslim defeatedthe Visigoth king
Roderic in the Battleof Guadalete.
However the Muslimruler Musa and his
leading general Tariqdid not hand power
over to their Visigothallies.
In just a few yearsthey occupied
nearly all of theIberian Peninsula
Muslims neverconquered themountainousregions of theNorth-West.
Muslims called the new territory Al-Andalus, and made Crdoba its capital. The emirate of Al-Andalus was dependent on the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus
In the mid 8th Century, most members of the
ruling Umayyad family in Damascus were killed
when the new Abbasiddynasty took power.
The emirs of Crdoba established a state onthe Iberian peninsula,
bur local leaders still heldconsiderable power.
Abd al-Rahmanfounded the Emirateof Crdoba in 756.
The emir of Crdoba was independent, but
he accepted thereligious supremacy of
Ummayad prince calledAbd al-Rahman escaped
to the Iberianpeninsula.
The indepent emirate of Crdoba (756-926)
Describe the invasion routes taken by the muslims.
Which parts of the Iberian peninsula were not conquered by the muslims?
Why do you think the muslims chose Crdoba as their capital?
The fragmention of Al-Andalus.
THE TAIFA STATES (1031-1086)
INTRODUCTIONAfter the collapse of the Caliphateof Crdoba in 1031, there wassignificant ethnic and politicaldivision in Andalusi society. Al-Andalus split into smallindependent Muslim states calledtaifas.
CHARACTERISTICSThe larger states, like Seville andToledo fought with each other, totake control of the smaller taifas.
The Christian kingdoms in the northtook advantage of the lack of unityof Al-Andalus. They attacked thetaifas and forced their rulers to payparias, or tribute.
The Christian kingdoms where a growing threat tothe taifas, especially after they took Toledo in 1085.The following year the Muslims called for help fromthe Almoravids, who had established a Berberempire in northern Africa.
CALIPHATE OF CRDOBA
THE ALMORAVIDS AND THE ALMOHADS (1086-1212)
Twice, Al-Andalus recieved military assistance from Berber Muslim empires in North Africa, where a much stricter version of Islam was practised.
The Almoravids crossed over to theIberian Peninsula in 1086. Request ofMuslim rulers took over most of thetaifa states. Won some victories, didnot mantain the domination of Al-Andalus for very long, and itfragmented once again into manysmall taifa states in the 1140s.
The Almohads were the successors of the Almoravids in North Africa, and crossed over in 1147. They, too, conquered the taifa states as well as resisting the Christian kingdoms.Despite Almohad resistance, the christian kingdom continiued to expand in the 12th and 13th centuries.
In early 13th century, the Christians created a large army,. They achieved a greatvictory over the Almohads in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212).
BATTLE OF LAS NAVAS DE TOLOSA
The army formed by the Castilian, Aragonese, Navarras and Portuguese troopsfought against the army of the caliph almohade Muhammad an-Nasir. On Monday,July 16 of 1212 they attacked the Almohad forces in the location of Saint Elena.The Christian coalition formed by 70,000 soldiers, led by Castile, defeated the120,000 Muslims of the Almohad empire.With this historical victory of the Christian alliance had begun the slope of theMuslim dominion of Spain.The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, was undoubtedly the most important battle ofthe Reconquest.
PAGE 83 ACT 5Explain the following terms:TAIFAS: Small independent Muslim states.PARIAS: Taxes that the Muslim kings of Spain paid to Christian kings in the Middle Ages.
PAGE 83 ACT 6Who fought in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa? Who won? Whatwere its consequences?The Castilian, Aragonese, Navarrasand Portuguese troops against the army of the caliph almohadeMuhammad an-Nasir. The Christian coalition won the battle. The immediate consequences of this battle were limited, and did not suppose the aim of the AlmohadEmpire. The Christians kingdoms conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula by the mid-13th century, except for Granada.
Religion:Christians & Jews
were allowed to practise their religion as long as they paid taxes: The Mozarabs were
people that didntconvert to Islam.
The Muladis werechristians whoconverted to Islam and adopted their customs.
The Jews weremerchants,artisans and scholars.
They lived in JewishQuarters
The Arabsheld political power. They came from the Middle East.
The Berbers came from north Africa, helped to conquer the Iberian Peninsula. They recivedless land and wealth than the Arabs. They rebelled against the authority
Mosques and palaces
Mosque of Crdoba
Palace of Medina Azahara
Fortresses & palaces
Castle of Mlaga
Plane buildings Mosques and
fortressesTower of Gold(Part of a fortress)
The Giralda (Minaret of a mosque)
A lot of decoration Walls covered in
plasterwork & ceramics Palaces
The emergence of the Christian kingdoms
By: Sergio Romn, Paula Martnez and
During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries
the Kingdoms of Leon and Castile were
closely linked to each other.
They expanded when they conquered new territories, but they were also divided as
the result of royal inheritance
They were sometimes ruled by the same
monarch and sometimes formed
Leon was an important ChristianKingdom. Fernan Gonzlez was avassal of the king of Leon but alsohas authority over Castilla.
Castile was a sparsely populated groupof counties in the east of the kingdom.It was near the frontier with Al-Andalusso it was a zone of conflict wherenumerous castles were built.
He was the king of Castile in1217 and the king of Leon in1230 as well as the king ofGalicia in 1231. He was theson of Alfonso IX of Leonand Berenguela of Castile.
He inherited the Kingdom ofCastile and the Kingdom ofLeon and he united bothkingdoms into the Crown ofCastile
3) Explain the difference between the kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Castile and say when it happened.The kingdom of Castile was inherited by Fernando III and the Crown of Castile was when the kingdom of Castile and Leon were defectively united. It happened in 1230. 4) Which event marks the beginning of the kingdom of Asturias?The battle of Covadonga in 722.
THE KINGDOM OF NAVARRE AND
THE KINGDOM OF ARAGN TO
THE CROWN OF ARAGN
By: GONZALO, LORENA AND IVN
The Kingdom of Navarre:
From the 10 th century, Navarrewas ruled by the Jimena dynasty. Under Sancho III, the Kingdom of Navarre briefly became the largestChristian power of the Peninsula.Sancho III acquired the counties of Aragn, Castile and part of Len. After Sanchos death in 1035 thekingdom was divided among hissons
STAGES AND PERIODS:
- His oldest son, Garca Snchez,inherited Navarre.
- Fernando I inherited Castile, which became an independent Kingdom.
- Ramiro I inherited Aragn.- Gonzalo inherited the counties of
Sobrabe and Ribagorza.
The last king of the Jimena dynasty was Sancho VII the Strong, who died without descendants in 1234. In 1512, Navarre was conquered by Fernando the Catholic.
The Kingdom of Aragn to the crown of Aragn:
In the 10th century, the County of Aragn became part of the Kingdom of Navarre. When Sancho III of Navarre died in 1035, his son Ramiro became Ramiro I (1035-1063), the first King of Aragn. In 1076, Ramiros son, Sancho Ramrez, reunited the kingdoms of Aragn and Navarre. In the 12th century, the Kingdomof Aragn increased its territoryconsiderably.In 1137, Ramn Berenguer IV, becameenganged to marry Petronilla of Aragn, who was just a year old. This unitedAragn and the Catalan counties, and led to the creation of the Crown of Aragn.
STAGES AND PERIODS:
- 10th century: Aragn became partof Navarre.
-1035: Ramiro I became the firstking of Aragn.
-1076: Sancho Ramrez reunitedAragn and Navarre.
-1137:Ramn Berenguer m