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Axial Skeleton The Skull

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Axial Skeleton. The Skull. The Skull. Two parts of the skull: The cranium encloses and protects the brain The facial bones hold the eyes and face shape. The Skull - Cranium. Eight large flat bones fused together ( sutures ): Frontal – forms forehead - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Axial  Skeleton

Axial Skeleton

The Skull

Page 2: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull

• Two parts of the skull:– The cranium encloses and protects the brain– The facial bones hold the eyes and face shape

Page 3: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull - Cranium

• Eight large flat bones fused together (sutures):– Frontal – forms forehead– Parietal – superior and lateral walls (paired)– Temporal – inferior to parietal, at temples (paired)– Occipital – posterior wall– Sphenoid – deep to the anterior of skull, forms

floor of cranial cavity– Ethmoid – forms roof of nasal cavity, medial walls

of orbits

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The Skull - Cranium

Page 5: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull - Cranium

Page 6: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull - Cranium

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The Skull - Cranium

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The Skull - Face

• Thirteen bones fused together, with one connected by joints– Maxillae – forms upper jaw (paired)– Palatine – posterior to maxillae, between back

molars (paired)– Zygomatic – cheekbones, lateral walls of orbits

(paired)– Lacrimal – part of medial walls of orbits, between

ethmoid bones and maxillae (paired)

Page 11: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull - Face

• Continued…– Nasal – bridge of nose (paired)– Vomer – median line of nasal cavity– Inferior conchae – bone projections from lateral

wall of nasal cavity (paired)– Mandible – lower jaw, connected by only freely

movable joint of face

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The Skull - Face

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The Skull

• Hyoid Bone– Not technically part of skull– Does not articulate directly with any other bone– Anchored to temporal bones by ligaments– Movable base for tongue– Attachment point for neck muscles

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The Skull

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The Skull – Bone Markings• Bone Markings

– Meatus – canal-like passageway• External Auditory Meatus – canal leads to eardrum and

middle ear (temporal)– Process – bony prominence

• Styloid Process – inferior to auditory meatus (temporal)• Zygomatic Process – anterior to cheek bone (temporal)• Mastoid Process – posterior and inferior to auditory

meatus (temporal)• Palatine Processes – extensions of maxillae that form

the anterior part of the mouth (maxillae)

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The Skull – Bone Markings– Foramen – opening through bone

• Jugular Magnum – at junction of occipital & temporal bones, opening for jugular vein (temporal)

• Carotid Canal – anterior to jugular foramen, opening for carotid artery (temporal)

• Foramen Magnum – opening for spinal cord to connect to brain (occipital)

• Foramen Ovale – opening for nerve fibers to pass to jaw muscles (sphenoid)

– Condyle – rounded articular projections (involved with joints)• Occipital Condyles – rest on the first vertebra of the spinal

column (occipital)– Sinuses – cavities in bone filled with air

• Paranasal Sinuses – found in different bones surrounding nasal cavity (frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillae)

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The Skull – Bone Markings

Page 25: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull – Bone Markings

Page 26: Axial  Skeleton

The Skull – Bone Markings