betrayal of east pakistan 2003

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Betrayal of East Pakistan By: Lieutenant General A. A. K. Niazi Reaction of Author on the publication of Hamood-ur-Rehman Commission Report. Assigned By: Sir. Asad Ijaz Assigned to: Adnan Ijaz M08MBA071 Aqdus Javed M08MBA075 Class: MBA (B&F) 2008-2010 Semester: 3 rd Specializat ion: Finance Due Date: 21 January 2010 Book Review

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Book Review Betrayal of East PakistanBy: Lieutenant General A. A. K. NiaziAssigned By: Sir. Asad Ijaz

Assigned to:

Adnan Ijaz M08MBA071 Aqdus Javed M08MBA075

Class:

MBA (B&F) 2008-2010 3rd Finance 21 January 2010

Semester: Specialization: Due Date:

Reaction of Author on the publication of Hamood-ur-Rehman Commission Report.

Hailey College of Banking and Finance

Punjab University, Lahore.PrefaceOn December 16, 1971, in front of crowd of nearly a million Bengalis, Lieutenant General A. A. K. Niazi, Commander, Eastern Command of the Pakistan Army, surrendered first his pistol, then his sword, and then of half his country to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora of the Indian Army. This was the first time that a Muslim commander surrendered in front of a Hindu commander. And the result of this surrender was also very damaging for the United Pakistan, now the East Pakistan had become a new country Bangladesh. This book gives an inside view of what was actually happened because the author (Ameer AbduALLAH Khan Niazi) was one of the key players (Commander of Eastern Pak Army) of that tragic incident. The basic purpose of this book is to highlight the reason of separation of the East Pakistan, the author has strongly defended himself in this book and try to answers those question which raised by Hamdur-Rehman Commission. In the book the author tried to bring the incidents in front of nation which were actually caused for the war. What consequences emerged after the war, why the separation of Pakistan took place and who were the key players in this tragic debacle? And the author also highlighted those disgraceful aspects when Pakistani soldiers surrender in front of enemy. Who forced the brave soldiers of Pakistan to surrender in front of the Indian Army? How the Mukti-Bahni struggle started and what result emerged from that struggle. General Niazi also highlighted those events that how Pak Army left alone in the war of East Pakistan and why the promised was not fulfilled that the war of East Pakistan will be fought in the West Pakistan. Why the political strategy was made in such a way which leaded to the separation of the East Pakistan. Who were the people, who scarified the East Pakistan for their own personal interests? And the most important, what were those grounds on basis of which the people of East Pakistan were become against West Pakistan. The above all important topics are explained by General Niazi beautifully in his book, who was performing his functions on most important position. Now we move towards the summery of this book. In the beginning of the book the writer summarizes the important causes of this problem; he started from the root level and then continues till end.

The Hamood-ur-Rehman Commision Report can be accessed at the following: links.http://www.insaf.pk/Portals/0/NTForums_Attach/hamoodurrehmancommissionreport.pdf http://www.bangla2000.com/Bangladesh/Independence-War/ReportHamoodur-Rahman/default.shtm

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About the Author

Lieutenant General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi HJ, MC (1915 - 2 February 2004), was a general officer of the Pakistan Army. In 1971, as a Lieutenant General, Niazi was in charge of Eastern contingent of the Pakistani Army during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War. Born to a family in the Punjab province, India, Niazi enlisted in the Indian Army as a junior officer, and fought well during World War II. During this conflict, the young Niazi would win a Military Cross and be given the nickname "Tiger" by his superior officer due to his prowess in battle against Japanese forces. His Military Cross was earned for actions along the border with Burma, in which he showed great leadership, judgment, quick-thinking, and calmness under pressure. He joined the newly-formed Pakistani Army after the partition of India in 1947 and quickly rose through the ranks, earning various awards including the Hilal-i-Jurat twice. He commanded 5 Punjab during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, 14 Para Brigade during operations in Kashmir and Sialkot, and martial law administrator of Karachi and Lahore. By 1971 he had reached the rank of Lieutenant-General.

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You were considered an expert in your profession that is why you are not only rose quickly through the ranks but also transfers quickly from one place to another. His transfer was made as Lt. Colonel in Dhaka according to the order of Chief of Army Staff, General Ayub Khan.

Table of ContentsTable of Contents....................................................................................................... 4 Important Reasons of Separation...............................................................................5 Last Commander of Eastern Pakistan.........................................................................9 Geographical Situation.............................................................................................10 Mukti Bahani.............................................................................................................10 The East Pakistan Civil Armed Forces.......................................................................11 War Plan...................................................................................................................11 Eid day and the Attack of Indian Army.....................................................................12 Pakistani Air force attack of 3rd December..............................................................13 Area vise Battles ......................................................................................................13 Separation of Pakistan..............................................................................................15 West Sector and the Wasted Opportunities..............................................................17 Surrender and War Prisoner Camp no.100 .............................................................17 Returned to Pakistan................................................................................................18 Hamoodu-r-Rehman Commission Report..................................................................19 City Life.................................................................................................................... 19 Sukhar Jail.................................................................................................................19 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 20

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Important Reasons of SeparationCultural Difference:According to author the only thing which was common between Eastern Pakistan and the West Pakistan was Islam. It was an unusual unity among the both parts because both were far away from each other.

Educated Hindus:According to author on the separation of subcontinent the Hindu migrated from the West Pakistan to India but the same was not happen in the East Pakistan. The Hindu remains there in large number and them also holding the main positions. Due to greater literacy rate than the Muslims, a large number of teachers were Hindus so they can influence the mind of children from the very beginning.

Removal of Khawaja Nazim-u-Din:When the president who belonged to West Pakistan remove the Khawaja Nazim-u-Din, it also created a lot of frustration among Bengalis. It was also one of the reason on the basis of which the distance increased between the west and east Pakistani people.

Urdu as national language:Because both parts have their own heritage and culture so the difference between them started creating problem. Two different languages used to speak in both areas and this language difference later on becomes a severe problem because Bengalis were against making Urdu as an official language because most of them were not able to speak Urdu so they thought that due to Urdu as an official language they will not be able to progress in the jobs with the same pace as the western people can do. At last on the 1954 the Bengali language is also accepted as Official language.

Representation of Bengalis:The next issue was the representation of the Bengalis in the National Assembly, the western part did not want to give them seats according to their population strength because they were fear that if it was happen that on one day the Bengalis will be in a place that they can easily remove the majority of the western part in the politics.

Bhutto speech in National Assembly:2 0

The next problem start after the speech of Bhutoo in the National Assembly after the 1965 Indo Pak war, he said that the China had saved the Western Pakistan from the India during the war. The Bengalis start thinking that if the large part of the Pak Army remain in the western part what they were getting by uniting with the west Pakistan.

Agar-tilla conspiracy:Then on 1966 the Agr-tala consipiracy was unveiled. The Indian Intelligence were trying to cut the east part from the Western Pakistan from the day when Pakistan was made and the majority of Hindu population in the Eastern part was providing help to them in achieving that task.

Flood in East Pakistan:In the meanwhile the flood hit the Eastern Pakistan, the Eastern Commander of Pak Army declined to help the people, it was a great mistake. Usually, the army helps the peoples in such climates. The British and the American teams came to East Pakistan without the knowledge of the Islamabad. Now the anger of the people of East Pakistan was on the peak because whatever the American and British were doing it was the responsibility of the Pak Army.

Election of 1970:After the election of 1970 no part succeeded in getting majority, both Bhutoo and Mujeeb wants to create the government. The Mujeeb was in good position because it had more seats than the Bhutoo. Presedent Ayuub Khan called for a conference and asked both Bhutoo and the Mujheeb but Bhutoo was not interesting in joining that conference. This made the situation more crucial and now Mujheeb was also not showing flexibility on his side. And then on the same time the General Yahya helped the politicians in the campaign against the Presendet Ayuub and so clears his way to replace Ayuub and sit on his place. After becoming president, Yahya ordered for election. Now there were three people and all wants to get a prominent place, Mujheeb was a great speaker he can convince people with his words, the Bhutto has somehow the same power. But they both are famous in their regions only, Bhutoo was famous among the Western Pakistani people and Mujeeb was among the Eastern Pakistani people. Besides these two, Yahya also want to remain as a president. Mujeeb and Bhutoo both were not progressing towards solution and Yahya also wanted to remain as president. Awami League (Mujeeb party) had selected the way of violence after the delay of the summit of National Assembly. Thousands of western Pakistan supporters had been killed in Dhaka. India was supporting Mujeeb, which was now the loving leader of East Pakistani people.

Indian aggression:2 0

On the same time the India increased the number of its army on the Western front to pressure the Pak Army and give courage to Mujheeb to betray. On 30 June 1971 one Indian plane high jacked and the plane was brought to Lahore, the Pakistan welcomed the Kashmiri high jackers. It was a net for Pakistan, Indian intelligence has planned this highjacking and they know that Pakistan will welcome them knowing that the high jackers were Kashmiris and then the Indian Government will use this high jacking and Pakistani welcome a excuse to stop Pakistan from using his air space and in this way the West Pakistan will be cut with the East Pakistan.

Military operation Blitz:On 22 Februraty, Yahya passed the Military Operation Blitz and order the Western Commander General Yaqoob to use this strategy if Mujeeb will not show flexibility on his six

Mujeeb Six points (Not given in book)1. The constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in its true sensebased on the Lahore Resolution and the parliamentary form of government with supremacy of a Legislature directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. 2. The federal government should deal with only two subjects: Defence and Foreign Affairs, and all other residual subjects should be vested in the federating states.

3. Two separate, but freely convertible currencies for two wings should beintroduced; or if this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the whole country, but effective constitutional provisions should be introduced to stop the flight of capital from East to West Pakistan. Furthermore, a separate Banking Reserve should be established and separate fiscal and monetary policy be adopted for East Pakistan. 4. The power of taxation and revenue collection should be vested in the federating units and the federal centre would have no such power. The federation would be entitled to a share in the state taxes to meet its expenditures. 5. There should be two separate accounts for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings; the foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met by the two wings equally or in a ratio to be fixed; indigenous products should move free of duty between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries. 6. East Pakistan should have a separate militia or paramilitary force.

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points. Because the army strength had been increased in the East to start the Blitz mission, the Awami League started displaying some flexibility.

Delay in assembly session:Bhutoo did not want that the National Assembly session will begin to form a government because he knew that Awami League was in majority. Bhutoo with the Yahya delayed the National Assembly session. Mujeeb went to strike on this delay and Awami League workers start killing Western Pakistanis and Bharais. More than 15,000 people were killed. Bhutoo gives the idea of two prime ministers, which was in other words means the separation of Pakistan. Mujeeb said that now Pakistan had been disappeared and he will not take part in any further talk. Despite of all above events the Yahya role was extremely soft and even the Governer did not take any action against traitors.

Other events:Mujeeb announced to establish his own government against the Marshal Law and immediately after the announcement Awami League started the way of violence. They killed, burnt innocent Pakistanis and even raped the women. Lieutenant General Yaqoob who was the governer and the commander of East Pakistan command, he preferred to keep silence on all this terrorism. When he was asked to took action, he gave his resignation by saying that he cannot kill his own brothers. But he was the same person who didnt help the people of West Pakistan when they need him in days of flood. On 7th March 1971 General Tika was appointed as Governor General and commander of East Command. He ordered that all the foreign media should leave the province, this made them angry and they start negative propaganda against the Pak Army. On the 23 March Mujeeb flagged the Bangladesh flag on his house and the same did by British and Russian high commission. On 25th of March, he started his military action against the traitors. He was so cruel in his actions that even he crossed the brutality level of Halako-Khan and Changez-Khan. On the time of the operation of 25th March the Bhutoo stayed there to see all this action and on its completion he appreciated General Tika and pass the historical comments that Thanks God, Pakistan has been saved. And after his Government he appointed general Tika as Chief of Army Staff (COAF). In the command of Retired General Majheed, the retired military personals started hiring to fight with Pak Army. India started helping these people by providing them ammunition and required training.

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Last Commander of Eastern Pakistan(Lt. General A.A Khan Niazi)On 2 April 1971 General Abdul-Hameed asked the General Niazi to met him, he met him the next day. General Abdul-Hameed asked him to take the charge of Eastern Command because he was not satisfied with the General Tika. According to writer, he was at 12th number in the Army rank when he was offered to take this charge, which was the 3rd rank position in Pakistan Army at that time. On 10th April General Niazi took the charge from the General Tika and General Tika had become the Governor of the East Pakistan. He was also the Marshal-Law Administrator, now he had responsibility of both the civil and Marshal-law administration in the East Pakistan. Whereas Niazi was responsible for the Eastern Pak Army only. When General Niazi took the command, the situation of East Pakistan was worse in all ways like administratively, economically and defensive situation was also out of control Pak army was fighting only near its camps and they had no control over the other areas of East Pakistan. Traveling was only possible with the help of air plane because Muqti Bahni had controlled over a large part of the country. The writer says that he had 3 incomplete divisions only to cater the situation and because 2 divisions had been brought by air plane so they did not have tank, artillery etc. So, there were 45000 armed personals available to fight and this include the people from civil armed forces, police and mujahedeen. The East Pakistan did not have a complete air force, only one Squadron was in Dhaka and there was no good radar available. The same situation was with the Navy, East Pakistan had only 4 small navy ships which have to control the 500 miles of rivers and sea too. The writer describes the situation of Eastern Pak Army so miserable that it looks that they were not in the position to successfully fight with all the problems of the East Pakistan and when the Indian Army attacked on them they were not capable to fight with it in front, so they had to follow the strategy of fighting by remaining in the safe place (forts etc). Because the civilians of East Pakistan were also against the Pak Army so they had to fight on the both sides with Indian and as well as with their own annoyed peoples which was not possible for any force. No, army can fight without the help of its country public and here the situation was so bad that the some elements in public was also fighting with the army. When General Niazi was sent to East Pakistan, the mission which he had to accomplish was to take control of as much East Pakistan as possible so that to stop India and Mukti Bahni to declare any part of East Pakistan as a Bangladesh. He (General Niazi) prepared a strategy to wipe out the conspirators from there and also to strengthen the control of Pakistan Federation. 2 0

Geographical SituationEast Pakistan was covered from 3 sides by India, a small boundary with Burma and on the fourth side there was an ocean. The Bengal (Eastern Pakistan) land is not easy to travel from one place to other as it is possible in the West Pakistan. In the whole Bengal, after every few kilometers there is a stream or a large river. The writer gives example of traveling from Dhaka to Jaisoor in order to clear the traveling difficulties they faced. According to him, for going Jaisoor from Dhaka, first they had to travel through train or by road till Nrain-Ganj, from Nrain-Ganj to Khilna in the steamer and from there to Jaisoor in the train again. So, this 75 miles journey from Dhaka to Jaisoor is completed in two days and by using three modes of transportation.

Mukti BahaniMukti Bahani was actually the aggregate of those persons who started the Liberation war of Bangladesh. The number of these persons in Mukti Bahani was 162,000 other than those Bengalis to whom training was provided and these tarained people were 125000. So, the total Bengalis in Mukti Bahani were 287,000. And the 50,000 of Indian Army soldiers were also mixed with them to give strength to their struggle. These people were kept in different categories according to education, skills and trainings. They had full gaudiness of Indian army. Traitors

Mukti Bahini started taking position around the East Pakistan and they had full support from the Indian Army. The Indian army had made more than 59 camps near the border to train the Bengali peoples. The circles shows the deployment of Mukti Bahini around the border.

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started theirs Guerillas war which was indeed very harmful for the Pak Army.

The East Pakistan Civil Armed ForcesOn his appointment, the strategy adopted by Niazi (the author) was different than that of General Tika, Niazi ordered that instead of securing only the surroundings of the camps we would attack the resisting elements and push them in India. The strategy succeeded and they successfully completed the mission. Till May 1971, the 50 percent Mukti Bahini had been unarmed by the Pak Army. And the remaining were hide in different location, now India started to re-organize them by acquiring new Bengalis and also providing training and ammunition. To fight with Indian made Makti Bahini and Indian army, the Pakistan army also made two groups, Al-Shamas and Al-Badar. Besides these two groups Pakistan army also re-structured EPCAF (The East Pakistan Civil Armed Forces), VPF, ISF (Industrial Security Forces), West Pakistani and East Pakistani Police, Mujahedeen and Raza-kar. But these civil armed forces had lack of modern weapons; despite this they did many successful operations against Mukti Bahani.

War PlanThe first task which was given to Niazi was that all the traitors should be removed or disarmed to safe East Pakistan. On the success of operation against the militants, he asked the GHQ (General 2 0

Headquarter) to allow him to follow the defeated resisting elements in the India so that they cannot re-organize themselves. He had a desire to attack on India so that to destroy the training camp and also to create problem for India to handle the migrated people from the attacked areas. But GHQ did not want to start an open war with India. And according to general Niazi, that was the fatal mistake which at last ended in the form of separation because allowing India to train Bengalis against their own countrys army resulted in great resistance from these militants and all that resulted in favor of India. Due to shortage of heavy weapons, air force and navy and number of soldiers it was not possible for the army only to safeguard the East Pakistan. Because, the military had to fight with the annoyed public, Mukti Bahini and the expected Indian attack so the plan that made was that the Line of Control check points would be the responsibility of the Mujahedeen and Rangers. And the large part of Pak Army will be deployed in the strong forts etc. The important roads had to be covered by the army and the civil armed forces. All that plan was made by keeping in the view the order from the High Command that no area should be given to India and to Mukti Bahini to declare it Bangladesh. East Pakistani Army was fighting against the militants from the 8 months and now the India had started raising its pressure on the border. GHQ did not give the promised fresh troops and artillery to the East Pakistan Army. GHQ wants to keep the Western Pakistan strong against the Indian Army which was in the western side. Due to large difference between the two parts of the country, it was not possible to provide help to each other during the war days at large scale and it was also not possible for the country to maintain equal army on the both sides because due to large Indian army, the Pakistan army cannot fight with the Indian army in the front war. So, a new strategy was introduced, the fight of East Pakistan will be fought in the west. In simple words if India will attack on East Pakistan, than the West part will enter into fight to force India to stop his war against the Eastern part. This was the strategy which the Pakistan Army planned to perform during any such situation and that was the reason which was not allowing GHQ to give more troops to Niazi to fight with the resisting elements and also to reduce the raising pressure of India at borders.

Eid day and the Attack of Indian ArmyThe intelligence has given the reports that Indian will attack on the Eid day which was on 21 November 1971. The Indian army attacked East Pakistan in the night between the 20 and 21 of November. According to the writer, many other writers have misplaced the actual date of starting of war. They start the war from the date of 3 December when West Pakistan air force attacked on many Indian air fields. According to the writer, we were fighting with the Indian Army from the March of 1971 but on the night between 20 and 21st of November the Indian army attacked East Pakistan with complete strength. But due to its failure they were presenting that attack as a skirmish between the both forces at the border and he looks annoyed on the Western part which

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even did not published reports against the attacks in the newspaper in the West Pakistan due to which the western people were not aware about that the Eastern Pakistan was fighting a complete full scale war with India.(The map of attack by the Indian army was given by the writer in between the page no. 122-123.)

Pakistani Air force attack of 3rd DecemberThe India had attacked East Pakistan on 21st November but Western Pakistan did not take it to UN and even did not tell his friends about the situation, India was showing that attack as small border skirmish. On the 3rd of December the Western Command ordered air force to attack on many air fields of India without telling the Eastern Command which was already in critical situation against the militants and Indian army. Indian prime minister given her speech and declared the Pakistan air force attack as an open war. So, the fight which was Pakistan fighting from many months was not become a full scale open war and it was all due to the mistake of the Western Command. Due to this attack, the message had been given to other countries that it was the Pakistan who had started the war. And also this attack gives India free hand to attack on East Pakistan with full power of air force and navy which was not doing too much before it. Because Eastern part did not have much air power to stop Indian from using their air force and also the navy was not able to resist against the grand navy of India. So, now the Eastern Pakistan was completed cordon off by the Indian army. Then the Eastern Pak Army had been given another mission by the Western Command, which was that the Eastern Pak Army will have to keep Indian army busy in the eastern front so that they cannot move toward the western part. So, that the western Pak army will be in better position to attack on India from the western front and they will try to get as many area of India as possible so that after the war they will be in better position to negotiate that captured land with the captured land by India in the East Pakistan. The writer than describes that it was a difficult task for him and for his army because they were fighting from the last 8 months and without much strength.

Area vise BattlesGeneral Niazi (the writer of the book) has explained the fights of many big cities in detailed and a large part of the book is devoted for these tales.

Raj Shahi, Rung poor, Hili, BograGeneral Niazi ordered to General Nazar Hussain that his division will defend this sector, in this division there were three brigades. One brigade was headed by Brigadier Shafi, 2nd was in the command of Brigadier Tajamal Hussain and the 3rd was under brigadier Naeem. 2 0

The fight of Hili shows the Major Muhammad Akram and a company of the 4th FF Pakistani defensive strategy Regiment which he commanded in the forward area of which Indian army and Mukti Bahini failed to break, the main the Hilli district, in East Pakistan in 1971, came under strategy of Pak Army was to stop continuous and heavy air, artillery and armor attacks. resist Indian and other groups in But for an entire fortnight, despite enemy superiority in the front so that to do casualties both numbers and fire power, he and his men, in near to the attacking force and then super human ability, repulsed every attack, inflicting they had to fall back to safe places and entrench there. The heavy causalities on the enemy. Major Muhammad strategy was adopted so that to Akram got Shahadat during this epic battle in 1971. accomplish the task given by Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed was awarded GHQ to hold as much Indian the Nishan-e-Haider, Pakistans highest military army on the eastern front as possible so that they can cash it to occupy the Indian area at the west. And it was useful strategy too for the eastern army which was less in number and also did not have a strong air support. The writer also refuse the statement of Major Fazal Muqeem, who said that on the 9 th December the Indian gained controlled on Hili. According to writer, Indian failed to gain control on the Hili and it was due to the brave soldiers. The Pak Army himself vacant the Hili on the 11 December as there plan to move to another place.

Major Mohammad Akram Shaheed

Another big event of the war was the destruction of Pakistani submarine Gazi. The Indian navy has an Aircraft Carrier Vikrant, which it deployed in the Chittagong. Gazi (Pak submarine) was 2 0

also gone there to destroy Vikrant but unfortunately it had been destroyed. According to writer, it went deep in the sea to attack on Vikrant that was the causes of its destruction, however, the Indian claim to destroy it.

Kishtia, jaisoor, khalna sector:In this sector of Jaisoor, General Niazi handed over 9th division in the command of Gen.Ansari. This division duty was to control the Upper areas, it was consisted of two brigades, one under Brigadier Manzoor ahmad other brigadier Hayat. Brigadier Hayat was awarded by Sitra-e-Jurat for his braveness in the war of 1965. Brig. Hayat gave a great harm to enemy in the war of 1971. Brig. Manzoor also did a good job, he showed a marvelous braveness. He performed his duty efficiently which was his responsibility. The defense of Chita-cong was in the command of brig. Atta Muhammad, he kept the enemy away from the sensitive areas and hilly areas cities of Chita-Cong. He also damaged the enemy.

Defense of Dhaka:The defense of Dhaka was divided into 3 sectors under experience officers. India had 3 brigade for the defense of Dhaka, while Niazi had 32 thousands soliders. Although, Niazi had step back from Jaisoor. Mehman and all air ports but big cities were still under the control of army. According to gen. Niazi overall force of Pakistan was just 45000 in East Pak. The strange event which took place here that 4 soldiers dead bodies which were under the custody of Indian army, they buried their bodies with full army honor because of their braveness.

Pakistan Navy and Air force:Navy and Air force also assisted Pak Army to their maximum possible limit, the pilot of air force worked full heartedly. If they did open their parachute to rescue themselves Bengalis killed them. But the attitude of Bengalis with the Indian pilot was opposite they received respect from the Bengalis and they were to be sent to their air bases with gifts, if any one of them landed by parachute. The air port of Dhaka was damaged in such a bad way that our air force had become ineffective after a few days of war. That is why the pilots were send back Western Pakistan and the same was the case with the Helicopter service. Because the Helicopter were not equipped with the night visioning equipments so it was not possible to use them in the night operations. And in the day time the Indian air force did not allow them to fly, so that was the reason that during the war they were sent to Burma.

Separation of Pakistan2 0

The war was on its peak, Indian Air force, Navy and Army was working jointly to occupy as much land as it was possible so that they can declare it a new state Bangladesh. The writer here describes the role of Gen. Farman. He was also in Dhaka with the author. According to author, he sent many messages to GHQ without his knowledge and also without the approval of Governor. In these signals he sketched a wrong picture of the situation and due to these signals the West Pak Command considered that the situation had become so worse. Niazi had given the reference of 7th December signal in which Gen. Farman asked the GHQ to take steps to stop the war. This was controversial to the next day signal in which GHQ praised the Niazi for his fight with such limited resources. Gen. Niazi also pointed out that Governor was also look worried and disappointed but the situation in the GHQ and President House was different, everyone was calm there like it was the normal days and nothing was happening in the country. 10th December was the worse day in Pakistan history when one conspirator took off his mask and come openly. On that day Gen. Farman without the approval of president send an extremely secret message to the representative of the United Nation in Dhaka. It was against the will of the president and governor because they had not approved that message. On the same day, Army Chief sent a message to Niazi in which he was giving him indication to lay down the arms. This message was showing that West Pakistan Command wanted to put all the liability on Niazi and Governor. On 13th of December, Niazi send a message to the GHQ in which he had showed his willingness to fight till last man and last round. He also ensured them that the defense of Dhaka was strong. Within the hour of Niazi message, COAS send message to Niazi that he should obey the order and do take all the necessary steps to stop the war. According to author, being a soldier it was his duty to obey the orders from his seniors. And when COAS and Commander Chief Air force asked him again and again to act upon the order, after 18 hours of order from the president, he wrote a letter on the name of Indian Army Chief to stop the war. On 15 December at the time of 11 Pm he received the answer of Indian army chief in which the Indian Army Chief insisted on laying down of weapons by the Pakistan army. Niazi posted one copy of this letter to GHQ. He was advised by GHQ to accept the terms and conditions of Indian Chief. Meanwhile, in the night of 15th and `6 December Niazi orders to fly the helicopters to Burma. According to Niazi, it was neither his desire to surrender nor he took any permission like this. The all the signals of Niazi always ended on the phrase Last man, last round. It was the order of Gen. Hameed and GHQ to surrender, to save West Pakistan.

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West Sector and the Wasted OpportunitiesThe power cannot hire by occupying the weapons but it depends on using those weapons at right time. In the war of 1971 the Pak reserve army which was posted in the West Pakistan, if it is to be used in war than the result perhaps might be different. After the perfect analyses of the situation, the conclusion appears that if the war strategy the battle will be fought in west Pakistan implemented in its true letter and spirit than we would have won the war. But unfortunately it was the basic reason for failure. President Yahya announced that war will be continue in west Pakistan after passing order of surrender to east Pak army but he also order to stop war in the west Pakistan. It was a great confusion even in the presidents mind that what he had to do. According to general Niazi, there was a huge difference between east and west Pak army. The west Pak army was in very good position. In fact, it was the first time and most probably this time will never appear in future, that west army was in very much better position than Indian army but still they did not go for war. Our chief of army staff passed order to attack on India from west side on 3rd December which should have to be passed in 21 November after Indian attack on us. In west sector (Karachi) our navy had no assistants from our air force. Only 26 air crafts used to attack on Indian troops which was almost useless, the amount of air craft should had to be extended and their attacks were also in very limited amounts, where as in East Pakistan, with limited air force and crafts the performance was remarkable. It is not deny able reality that our army leadership did not take any advantage from the most critical situation of India. It was the end of mismanagement. The opportunity which was given to the Pak leadership, by its good luck, they could not attain any benefit from it. The people who deceived Pakistan on that critical situation, who so ever they are, Yahya, Gull, Tikka or Bhutoo, this nation will never ever forgive them. These people will be alive in the pages of the history of Pakistan, like Meer Jafar and Meer Sadaaq. They scarified their nation for their personal selfishness and interest. There were many opportunities for the respected closure of the war but the attentions of the high command were impure. They covered their loyalties under the dirty clouds. The war could be ended in the favor of Pakistan, if they had countered attack on India. But very sad, it was not the script, because it was the very sad story and unusual example of wasted opportunities.

Surrender and War Prisoner Camp no.100A delegation came from India to Dhaka, to settle the arrangements of surrendering. Delegation met with Niazi. He was not ready to have a ceremony for such shameful event but he had to 2 0

accept it. Gn. Niazi convinced them that first civilian, police men and civil armed forces will leave from Dhaka to Pakistan and then army and at the end the high command. But strange and very sad event took place there when Bhutoo released Mujeeb, who was captive in West Pakistan. He could be used as plus point but Bhutoo did not think for any one, at the result of Mujeebs release the train of Pakistanis which was leading to Pakistan turned its root and entered in Alla-abad. Niazi and other Generals and they COS were went on plane on 20th of December to Calcutta. First they are to be kept in William building than were send to camp no.100. This was famous as General Head. Niazi and other spend two and half year there. That was a tough time but according to author, the overall attitude of the Indian staff was very good. They looked after them properly. Meanwhile, Niazi one day hear the news on radio that Bhutoo has established its govt. in Pakistan.

Returned to PakistanNiazi and other prisoner spend almost 28 months in Indian camps, Bhutoo in fact did not want they to see. Probably, it will be the first incident when PM of the country does not want receives its army soldiers. Indra Gandi also did not want to send us back but china created this opportunity. When it threatened India that if it will not release army prisoner than it will Veto the resolution to accept Bangladesh in Security Council. The request which rose by Pak Govt., that they wanted to receive General Farman and general Mujeed in first movement, so bhutoo could make a plan against Niazi. They both reached Pakistan immediately. Niazi had been told over there that plan has prepared by Bhutoo to hold him responsible for this entire tragic debacle. At last, a day came when they had to leave to their beloved country. They all had a smile on their faces. They ride of train, Indian gen. dispatched them. Here Gen. Niazi also once again Bhutoo for his extremely bad deeds. Bhutoo just wanted to occupy the govt. He had no concerns with poor people. He showed himself the most modest person, but was actually a very rude person. Finally, on the morning of 30 April of 1974, train reached Wagha station Gen. Niazi was the last person who entered in Pakistan. There were hundreds and thousands of people who were shouting in the favor of Gen. Niazi. People really appreciated Gen. Niazi after 10 days vocation Niazi reported to GHQ. There he was asked to write report for Hamood-ur-Rehman Commission. When Niazi asked to provide the written record, the answer was that no record is kept in GHQ but all is under the control of Bhutoo. The Niazi popularity graph was at the peak and Bhutoo become very angry. Bhutoo did not disturb Niazi for one year and he performed his duties on the same position with same facilities. 2 0

Hamoodu-r-Rehman Commission ReportThe explanation of east Pak scene is never made in front of the nation. GHQ and Govt. had become failed to aware the people about the rights of province. People would have not imagined what actually faced army over there. The expectation of people increased by deceptive news and promised. The people become confused about the news of sudden defeat. The nation was not ready for this disaster. Now they were amazed. People were fully aggressive and it was must to keep them calm and cool. It was demand of the nation to sue the traitors. The demand was so powerful, it couldnt be ignored. As a new president and being civil marshal law administrator Bhutoo ordered to established a investigation committee, headed by chief Justice Hamood-ur-Rehman. The area which was covered by the commission was just East Pakistan. Army command, Bhutoo strictly commanded East Pakistan army command and even Bhutoo strictly want Hamood-urRehman to keep himself outside the politics. According to author war is a part of politics. So, could the political work of Govt. kept outside the powers of commission? Author says that those political grounds should have to bring out which were actually caused of military action, the result of which Pakistan divided. One question, repeatedly asked by the commission that why he did not go to Burma. But Author says that they were not understanding, how he could go there to left the west Pakistanis and Baharis. Niazi says that he is sure, commission wrote in its report that he should had to transfer his army to Burma. In the answer, Niazi said that if it was to be done than why Security Council proposals were not implemented, which was providing better solution. The commission was acting on the recommendation of Bhutoo and Tikaa. According to Niazi, actually the report was amended later on. Report was not published and Bhutoo took all the papers, no one knows what he did with those papers. Niazi recommending that a new impartial commission must be organized to investigate this important issue and to hold responsible traitors.

City LifeNiazi decided to take part in politics because it was best plate form to defend him. His first speech was on Delhi Gate (Lahore). When Niazi went to Karachi, there the highest crowed of people was waiting almost 15 Lakh which was ever highest amount of people.

Sukhar JailNiazi was sent to the jail by Bhutoo and he was in A class. Zia occupied on government. When Zia declared Masrshal-Law then except Niazi all were released. He was under confinement in zia regime for three months and three months in jail. There he also met with Bhutoo. Bhutoo showed 2 0

modesty in meeting. He was very awful on his acts and he excused with Niazi. Niazi offered a cup of tea to him and they had a nice conversation. In jail, Niazi also heard the news of Bhutoo assassination. He was not happy on this, although he did not like Bhutoo.

ConclusionThe book is about the soldier, the impossible task given to him, his failed mission, his grand strategy, the ignominy of defeat and surrender, and his subsequent jehad in Pakistan to tell the truth about how and why the war was lost in 1971. According to Niazi it was Bhutto, in complicity with some generals, who was responsible for the breakup of Pakistan. Describing Bhutto's game plan, Niazi writes that first he got 'rid' of East Pakistan so that he could become prime minister of a truncated Pakistan, all the while blaming the army for the breakup. Next he got Lt. Gen. Gul Hassan, the then chief of General Staff, to organize a coup in cahoots with Air Chief Rahim Khan in order to get rid of the President and the Supreme Commander, Gen Yahya Khan. Later, Bhutto double-crossed Gul Hassan as well. Niazi's mission appeared simple: "Your task is not to allow the Indians to establish a government of Bangladesh on the soil of East Pakistan. However, Niazi's task was altered in mid-stream he was also required to tie down the maximum number of Indian forces in the east for as long as possible. A difficult task was made impossible as Niazi's strategic theory rested on the thesis that the decision for the war in the east lay on the outcome of the war in the west. He may have been right. But his 45,000-strong force proved no match for "the 12 divisions and 39 BSF battalions". By the time the war started on 3 December, Niazi was already doomed to defeat. Talk of help from the north (Chinese) and south (Americans) proved illusory. Niazi is today bitter man. Any soldier would be, had he suffered the collective shame of defeat, surrender and the humiliation of being a POW, and if he had to return home two years and eight months later, to be 'welcomed' with a placard marked "No 1" -meaning Traitor No 1- thrown around his neck, dismissed from service without pension, and jailed. Full marks should go to Niazi's courage and stamina for continuing to fight for 'vindication' 37 years after it all ended in a defeat for his side. Niazi has also demanded a new enquiry to reject the Hamood ur Rehman Commission report. More significantly, The Betrayal of East Pakistan seems to have set the cat among the pigeons, because now Tikka Khan, Gul Hassan and Yaqub Khan have all joined in the battle of recrimination.

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