byzantium, russia, & eastern europe

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Byzantium, Russia, & Eastern Europe. AD 330s - 1480. Roman Transition from West to East. AD 285: Emperor Diocletian divides administration of Rome into two halves AD 330: Emperor Constantine I moves the Eastern Roman capitol from Nicodemia to Byzantium (later called Constantinople) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Byzantium, Russia, & Eastern Europe

Byzantium, Russia, & Eastern EuropeAD 330s - 1480Roman Transition from West to EastAD 285: Emperor Diocletian divides administration of Rome into two halvesAD 330: Emperor Constantine I moves the Eastern Roman capitol from Nicodemia to Byzantium (later called Constantinople)AD 610: official language of Eastern Rome changed from Latin to GreekAD 476: traditional date for the fall of Western Rome Rome at its peak: 117 AD

Rome before the fall: 460 AD

JustinianAscended to throne in 533, began rebuilding ConstantinopleGreatest architectural contribution was Hagia Sophia church, long considered a wonder of the worldCodified Roman law, ultimately spreading to many parts of Europe

Military ConquestsJustinian had dreams of re-uniting all of old Rome, and did so brieflyWith the help of his general Belisarius, Justinian re-conquered Italy & North Africa by 555 ADUnable to resist pressure from Germanic tribes, or Persia and Arab pressure in the eastJustinian dies in 565 AD

Justinians Conquests: 555 AD

Shrinking Empire: 867 AD

650 AD

Arab threats in the 7th CenturyByzantium strong enough to withstand the Muslim expansion in the 600s and 700s, but took heavy tollArab Muslims built powerful navy to challenge Byzantine dominance of eastern MediterraneanMajor siege of Constantinople in 717-718 ADGreek fire: mixture of petroleum, quicklime, & sulfur; Byzantines used it to destroy Arab shipsGreek Fire: Napalm before there was Napalm

Constant Pressures: 700-1100Arab Muslim surge after 700Muslim wars added economic strain; the invasions and higher taxes weakened small farmers and created greater aristocratic estatesKingdom of Bulgaria pressured the Balkans in the 10th & 11th centuries; Byzantines able to combat threat through war and diplomacyDespite threats, BE strong imperial coreReligion, Society & PoliticsEmperor: ordained by God, head of church & stateWomen sometimes held the throne: Empress Theodora (981-1056)One of historys most elaborate bureaucraciesMilitary: run hereditary leaders, recruited local troops and outsiders (Slavs & Armenians)

Economy: large peasant class supplied cities with food and paid most of the taxesTrade: produced silk & luxury items, trade network established with Asia, Russia, & ScandinaviaGovernment controlled trade, merchant class never developed

Social

Icon: paintings of saints & other religious figures, often richly ornamented; caused iconoclasm controversy in 8th centuryWide social class gaps (pg 201)WomenTheodora: wife of Justinian, ambitious courtesan, eager for power; helped convince her husband to re-conquer RomeEmpress Theodora: Byzantine princess, strong and austere; refused to marry her heir, so he married her sister Zoe; Zoe sends Theo to a monasteryPopular rebellion makes Theo & Zoe co-empressesZoe dies, Theo (aged 70), reasserts her royal rights

East/West Split in 1054Rome vs. Constantinople; Roman Catholicism vs. Eastern OrthodoxyBoth religions had been developing independently since the fall of Rome in 476In Byzantium, the Emperor controlled church & state; in Rome, the pope controlled church while various kings controlled the stateByzantines viewed themselves as true heirs of Rome, resented Charlemagne labeling himself a Roman EmperorBE recognized the pope as first among equals, but not above any church or state official in the east1054: Ambitious patriarch raises old issues, like what bread to use during eucharist and celibacy for priests (Orthodox priests could marry, R. Catholic priests could not)Delegations from both sides meet, only causes more hostilityBoth sides excommunicate each otherDeclineTurkish Muslim invaders in central Asia pressed on BEs eastern bordersThe Seljuk Turks seized almost all Asiatic provinces in 11th centuryLost Battle of Manzikert in 1071; empire staggered along for 4 more centuries, but never recoveredAppeal to the West for help; West is lukewarm at best, actually sack Constantinople in 12041453: Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Turks; traditional dating of the official end of ByzantiumThe Ottoman Empire

Eastern Europe & Russia

Orthodox missionaries based in Constantinople spread Christianity in the Balkans and southern RussiaCyril and Methodius: Orthodox missionaries who attempted to spread OC into Czechoslovakia; more successful with the Slavs and southern RussiansOrthodoxy allowed church services in the vernacular language, Roman Catholicism did notKievan RusSlavs had moved from central Asia into western Russia during the days of old Rome; Slavs mixed with other peoples and tribesSlavs used iron, farmed, believed in animismNorse traders from Scandinavia set up trade routes with BE in the 6th & 7th centuries that ran through Slavic landsMilitarily superior to the Slaves, the Norsemen started to govern Slavic lands from the city of KievRurik: native of Denmark; legend says he was the first Kievan Rus prince in 855Contact between BE & KR increased steadily after the Norsemen moved into RussiaVladimir I (980-1015): descendant of Rurik, converted to Orthodoxy personally and on behalf of his subjects; why didnt he choose Roman Catholicism or Islam????Vlad organized mass baptisms and used military pressure on his people to convertAn independent Russian Orthodox Church developed; who do you think was in charge of it?

Rus SocietyInfluenced heavily by BE: issued formal law code, used vernacular language for religious literature (Slavic)Russian kings liked the ceremony & pomp of the Byzantine EmperorsChurches: ornate mosaics of saints, _______?Architecture: domed churches and cathedrals, like what famous church in Constantinople?Peasants were free farmers in Russia. How was this different?Boyars: Russian aristocrats; had less power than those in western EuropeDeclineOther Russian principalities started to compete with Kiev after the 12th centuryByzantine decline cut off trade to RussiaMongol invasions of 1237-1241: easily defeated Russia; isolated Russia from western Europe and further cut into trade with BETatars: Russian term for the MongolsMongols only demanded tribute from Russia, allowed religion and local government to existWhen Mongols left in 15th c., Russian culture was able to reemergeA 3rd, new Rome, under the kings mighty rule, sends out the Orthodox Christian faith to the ends of the earth and shines more brightly than the sun.-Russian monk in 1511-

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