carbon chemistry chapter 8. i. organic compounds organic compounds = organic compounds = are...

Download Carbon Chemistry Chapter 8. I. Organic Compounds Organic compounds = Organic compounds = are compounds that contain   (Some exceptions) Organic

Post on 26-Dec-2015

232 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Carbon Chemistry Chapter 8
  • Slide 2
  • I. Organic Compounds Organic compounds = Organic compounds = are compounds that contain Carbon.Carbon (Some exceptions) Organic means living things. Many Organic compounds have similar properties such as boiling and melting point as well as odor and solubility. examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic
  • Slide 3
  • Some Examples of Organic Compounds examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic examples: sugar, starch, fuels, synthetic materials like plastic
  • Slide 4
  • I. Organic Compounds I. Organic Compounds B. The backbone of organic compounds is carbon because it has 4 valence electrons and each atom can form 4 separate bonds
  • Slide 5
  • I. Organic Compounds C. Carbon compounds can form in 3 different Arrangements 1) Straight Chain 2) Branched chain 3) Ring
  • Slide 6
  • Slide 7
  • Formulas for Carbon Compounds 1) Chemical formulas a shorthand way to write the name of the compound 2) Structural formulas shows the number and arrangement of atoms.
  • Slide 8
  • Example: Acetone Chemical Formula: C 3 H 6 O Chemical Formula: C 3 H 6 O Structural formula: Structural formula:
  • Slide 9
  • I. Organic Compounds Isomers are carbon compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas. There can be so many different isomers of carbon because carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.
  • Slide 10
  • Examples of Isomers Butane: C 4 H 10
  • Slide 11
  • Chains of Molecules Monomer is one molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain. Monomer is one molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain. Polymers are very large molecules made up of many smaller molecules bonded together. Polymers are very large molecules made up of many smaller molecules bonded together.
  • Slide 12
  • I. Organic Compounds Organic compounds are formed mostly from the elements carbon, and hydrogen but can also include elements like oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and others but can also include elements like oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and others Hydrocarbons are organic compounds formed from only hydrogen and carbon
  • Slide 13
  • Chemical Compounds in Cells and in Our Food
  • Slide 14
  • Carbohydrates 1 gram carbohydrates provides 4 Calories of energy 1 gram carbohydrates provides 4 Calories of energy Provide raw materials to make cell parts Provide raw materials to make cell parts Two groups: Two groups: Simple carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates
  • Slide 15
  • Carbohydrates Energy rich Energy rich C, H, and O C, H, and O Simple sugars - glucose, fructose, maltose Simple sugars - glucose, fructose, maltose Complex carbohydrates made up of many simple sugars attached to each other Complex carbohydrates made up of many simple sugars attached to each other Starch- storage of glucose in plants Starch- storage of glucose in plants Cellulose make up plant cell walls Cellulose make up plant cell walls Found in cell membranes, other cell parts, and store energy
  • Slide 16
  • Simple Carbohydrates = Sugars Found in fruits, vegetables, milk Found in fruits, vegetables, milk Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) major source of energy for your cells. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) major source of energy for your cells. Another simple sugar = fructose in fruits Another simple sugar = fructose in fruits
  • Slide 17
  • Complex Carbohydrates Made of many simple sugars connected Made of many simple sugars connected Starch found in potatoes, wheat, rice, corn Starch found in potatoes, wheat, rice, corn Fiber (Cellulose) found in plants, but cannot be digested and passes through your digestive system - helps keep things moving along. (fiber) Fiber (Cellulose) found in plants, but cannot be digested and passes through your digestive system - helps keep things moving along. (fiber)
  • Slide 18
  • Carbohydrates
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Proteins Contain C, H, O, N and sometimes Sulfur Contain C, H, O, N and sometimes Sulfur Found in many foods Found in many foods Body uses proteins to build and repair body parts Body uses proteins to build and repair body parts
  • Slide 21
  • Proteins in the diet For tissue growth and repair For tissue growth and repair Enzymes speed up chemical reactions Enzymes speed up chemical reactions Can be used for energy, but not usually Can be used for energy, but not usually About 12% of your daily Calorie intake should be protein About 12% of your daily Calorie intake should be protein
  • Slide 22
  • Structure of Proteins Made of amino acids Made of amino acids There are 20 different amino acids in living things There are 20 different amino acids in living things These aas link together to form a large molecule of 50-3000 aas in one protein. These aas link together to form a large molecule of 50-3000 aas in one protein. Change one aa, changes whole protein Change one aa, changes whole protein
  • Slide 23
  • Enzymes Special kinds of proteins Special kinds of proteins Chemicals that speed up chemical reactions in the body without being used up themselves. Chemicals that speed up chemical reactions in the body without being used up themselves. Here the enzyme helps break a large molecule into 2 smaller ones. Some enzymes join two small molecules to make one larger one. Here the enzyme helps break a large molecule into 2 smaller ones. Some enzymes join two small molecules to make one larger one.
  • Slide 24
  • Film on proteins Film on proteins
  • Slide 25
  • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) Contain more than 2x Contain more than 2x the energy of carbohydrates Store energy Store energy Parts of cells Parts of cells Protect internal organs Protect internal organs Insulate the body Insulate the body
  • Slide 26
  • Lipids Fats, oils, waxes Fats, oils, waxes Store energy Store energy Made of C, H, and O Made of C, H, and O Contain more energy Contain more energy than carbs
  • Slide 27
  • Types of Fats Unsaturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Liquid at room temperature Liquid at room temperature Oils Oils Considered good for you Considered good for you Saturated Fats Saturated Fats Solid at room temperature Solid at room temperature From animals; a few plants From animals; a few plants coconut palm Bad for you Bad for you
  • Slide 28
  • Film on Lipids (fats) Film on Lipids (fats)
  • Slide 29
  • Slide 30
  • Nucleic Acids DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid Made of C, H, O, N, and Phosphorus Made of C, H, O, N, and Phosphorus Contain instructions for cells to carry Contain instructions for cells to carry out all their functions. Monomer is the 4 different nucleotides DNA is a spiral shape RNA is single strand with one different nucleotide and different sugar. nucleotide and different sugar.
  • Slide 31
  • Film on Nucleic Acids Film on Nucleic Acids
  • Slide 32
  • Water Essential for all life. Essential for all life. Most chemical reactions occur in water. Most chemical reactions occur in water. Helps in building up molecules and breaking them down at the functional groups. Helps in building up molecules and breaking them down at the functional groups.
  • Slide 33
  • Water People die within days of not having water People die within days of not having water Makes up most of the bodys fluids Makes up most of the bodys fluids Makes up about 65% of your body weight Makes up about 65% of your body weight The bodys most important functions take place in water. The bodys most important functions take place in water. Nutrients are dissolved in water in blood and transported around the body Nutrients are dissolved in water in blood and transported around the body Need about 2 liters of water per day Need about 2 liters of water per day Need more if weather is hot or you are exercising Need more if weather is hot or you are exercising
  • Slide 34
  • Vitamins (Organic) Act as helper molecules for a variety of chemical reactions in the body. Act as helper molecules for a variety of chemical reactions in the body. The body makes some K is made by bacteria in intestine The body makes some K is made by bacteria in intestine The rest come from foods eating a wide variety of foods provides all the vitamins needed. The rest come from foods eating a wide variety of foods provides all the vitamins needed.
  • Slide 35
  • Types of Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins Dissolve in fatty tissue and are stored there. Dissolve in fatty tissue and are stored there. Includes vitamins A, D, E and K Includes vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble Vitamins Water soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water and not stored in body Dissolve in water and not stored in body Needed in diet every day. Needed in diet every day. Includes vitamins B and C Includes vitamins B and C
  • Slide 36
  • Salts Ionic compounds found in your body as dissolved ions. Ionic compounds found in your body as dissolved ions. NaCl dissolved in you blood help

View more >