causes of world war i -
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DESCRIPTIONCauses of World War I -. M A N I A. M A N I A. ilitarism policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war . lliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another. ationalism pride in or devotion to ones country. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Causes of World War I -M
Ailitarism policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war lliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another ationalism pride in or devotion to ones country mperialism when one country takes over another country economically and politicallyssassination murder of Austrian Archduke Franz FerdinandMANIA
Causes of WWI - MilitarismTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of s (British pounds).
1910-1914 Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th, 1914.
AssassinationAustrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia.
Gavrilo Princip after his assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandAustria blamed Serbia for Ferdinands death and declared war on Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. Russia pledged their support for Serbia and began mobilization the readying of troops for war. Mobilization is considered an act of war.
The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandGermany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
How did the US respond to the breakout of war in Europe?The US responded to the start of a war in Europe by declaring its neutrality.
What did the US really mean by neutral?
What prevented the US from remaining neutral? What caused the US to enter the war in 1917?With your partner, generate a list of reasons the US entered the Great War in 1917.
The preparedness movementBusiness leaders who had strong commercial ties to Great Britain urged the US to get ready for war.Their watchword was preparedness.
President Wilson asked Congress for funds to build up the armed forces & established a council of National Defense to increase cooperation between the military and private industry.
The Peace MovementConsisted of Progressives, Socialists, and Populists. Women were particularly active. On August 29, 1914, suffragists, dressed in black and carrying a banner of a dove, marched down New York Citys Fifth Avenue. Jeannette Rankin, the first female elected to Congress, voted against US involvement in the war. Jane Addams was another supporter of neutrality.
They argued that if the US was going to prepare for war, Congress should tax the makers of arms and increase income taxes to pay for the increase in the army and navy. This would be unpopular with the American people, resulting in the US staying neutral.
However, Congress still increased taxes!
The World must be made safe for democracy. (Woodrow Wilson)Discuss with your Partner:What do you think President Wilson meant by this statement? Was it a valid reason for US involvement in WWI? Why or why not?
MOBILIZATIONFor an entire year after the US entry into the war (1917), its main contributions to the Allies were large supplies of food, guns, ships, airplanes, & other goods.FACTORIES Bernard Baruch headed the War Industries Board convert products & methods to wartime needsFOOD SUPPLY Herbert Hoover, Food Administrator voluntary action meatless Mondays, wheatless Wednesdays, Gospel of the Clean Plate
Mobilization continuedWomen & Minorities began to take the place of men who entered the armed forces.Great Migration African Americans had begun to move North prior to the war, but large numbers of African Americans migrated North during the war to find jobs.
Preparing for WarWhat was the Selective Service Act?What was the AEF?Why did the War Department initiate the convoy system?When the US entered the war, what was the strategy or tactic that General John J. Pershing to lead his men? What was the role of African Americans in the war?
Financing the WarWhat were the 2 main ways the war was paid for?
Managing the EconomyHow did the role of government change because of the war?How did the government manage the economy?
Enforcing LoyaltyWhat were some of the ways the government enforced loyalty?Why was it necessary for the government to take such actions?
Changing Peoples LivesHow did the war change the lives of Americans on the home front?
Review: Causes of WWIWRITE THE QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS.
What was the spark that started WWI?What was the underlying cause of WWI?Who was the leader of Germany during WWI?How did the US react to the outbreak of war in Europe?What slogan helped Wilson get reelected in 1916?
1. How did trench warfare lead to a stalemate?Neither side was able to push the other out of the trenches causing the war to drag out 4 long years, with neither side winning or losing.PREVIEW QUESTIONS 23-2
2. Why did the US enter the war?
Unrestricted submarine warfare!
The Western FrontSchlieffen PlanGermanys plan to open up a 2-front war, fighting both France & RussiaPlan failed! The Germans were stopped at the First Battle of the Marne.The Western Front turned into a stalemate.
Tactics of Trench WarfareGoal: break through the enemys trenchesUsed artillery, bayonets, machine guns, tanks, poison gasesMeant you had to cross No Mans LandWar of attritionLive & Let Live system
WWI was the first modern war.Flame throwersCannonMachine gunsPoison gasTanksAirplanesBalloons (blimps) - Hindenburg
The German Blimp (Zeppelin)Blimps are a type of airship. They have big bags sewn like a cigar that are filled with helium gas. A famous one was the Hindenburg, which caught fire, killing 36 people.36 people.
If I should come out of this war alive, I will have more luck than brains.
Imperialism: European conquest of Africa
Triple Entente:Triple Alliance:Causes of WWI - AlliancesGermanyAustria-HungaryItalyGreat BritainFranceRussia
Causes of WWI - Assassination
World War IAllied Powers:Central Powers:Great BritainFranceRussiaItalyGermanyAustria-HungaryOttoman Empire
PropagandaIdeas spread to influence public opinion for or against a causeUsed to gain support for WWI
A WWI poster urges nations to come to the aid of Serbia.Should you always support a friend, no matter what he or she does?
What might be the long-term consequences of refusing to help an ally?
CHANGES IN ALLIANCESALLIESGreat BritainFranceRUSSIA WITHDREW FROM THE WAR, 1917 (WHY? Russian Revolution)ITALY CHANGED ALLIANCESCENTRAL POWERSAustria-HungaryGermanyITALY CHANGED ALLIANCES, 1915 (WHY? They believed their former partners had started a war for unjust reasons.)
The US enters the warNeutrality
GermanyAt first traded with both sides.
set a naval blockade of Germany so US couldnt trade with them
Russian Revolution 1917 Russia exited the war
the sinking of the Lusitaniabegan unrestricted submarine warfare which brought the US into the war.
Key Terms 23-3 soviets
Councils representing workers & soldiers who participated in politics or political parties
A way the Communists could be in power by controlling banks, farms & industries
Background to the Russian Revolution (23-3)RussiaWithdrew from WWI in 1917; WHY?- lacked experienced military leaders & technology- were unprepared for war- the Russian army was poorly trained & equipped & suffered terrible losses- Czar Nicholas II was overthrown
AlexandraWife of Czar Nicholas IIRelied on Rasputin who claimed to be a holy man, who was later assassinated
The Russian RevolutionDID YOU KNOW?Vladimir Lenin was born in 1870 to a middle-class family. He was educated and became a lawyer. In 1887, his older brother was executed by the czarist police for planning to assassinate the czar. This event turned Lenin into a revolutionary, and he dedicated his life to overthrowing the czar.
LeninHow did he gain control of Russia?Started by being the leader of the Bolshevik (political) party.The Bolsheviks, under Lenin, overthrew the provisional government and the Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communists.Lenin & the Communists used war communism & terror to gain control of Russia.By 1921, the Communists had complete control of Russia which was now the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).
another way of controlling or acquiring another country but not owning it
Preview Questionsp. 7391. What were the key events in bringing about an end to the war?the US entering the war in 1917the Second Battle of the Marne German forces were stoppedan armistice was signed November 11, 1918
2. What was the intended purpose of the League of Nations?to act as an international peacekeeping organization
How did WWI end?Notes 23-4November 11, 1918 an armistice was signed ending the war.Treaty of Versailles, based on President Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points, officially ende