chapter 3 attitudes

of 51 /51
Values and Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Author: ye-tun-aung

Post on 11-Jul-2016




0 download

Embed Size (px)



Page 1: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Values and Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Page 2: Chapter 3 Attitudes

ValuesBasic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.

Value SystemA hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.

Page 3: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Characteristics1. Judgmental element - what is right, good, or


2. Values have both content and intensity attributes.

3. Values are not generally fluid and flexible. They tend to be relatively stable and enduring.

Page 4: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Importance of Values• Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation,

and behaviors of individuals and cultures.

• Influence our perception of the world around us.

• Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.”

• Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.

Page 5: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Types of Values – Rokeach Value Survey

Terminal Values

Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. e.g.: A comfortable life, Equality, National Security, Self-respect Instrumental Values

Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. e.g.: Ambitious, Courageous, and Obedient

Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey consisting of two sets of values, with each containing 18 individual value items.


Page 6: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Values in the Rokeach Survey

Page 7: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Value Differences Between Groups

Page 8: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce

Page 9: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures

To analyze variations among cultures a research was done in late 1970s by Greet Hofstede. He surveyed more than 1,16,000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work-related values.

Page 10: Chapter 3 Attitudes

HE Titles

Power Distance

The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

Low distance: relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth

High distance: extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth

Page 11: Chapter 3 Attitudes

HE Titles

Achievement (Masculinity)

The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness, materialism and competition.

Nurturing (Femininity)

The extent to which societal values emphasize relationships and concern for others.

Page 12: Chapter 3 Attitudes

HE Titles

Uncertainty Avoidance

The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them.High Uncertainty Avoidance:

Society does not like ambiguous situations & tries to avoid them.

Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations & embraces them.

Page 13: Chapter 3 Attitudes

HE Titles

Long-term Orientation

A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence.

Short-term Orientation

A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations.

Page 14: Chapter 3 Attitudes

HE Titles


A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.


The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups.

Page 15: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Geert Hofstede • There are only seven (7) countries in the

Geert Hofstede research that have Individualism (IDV) as their highest Dimension: USA (91), Australia (90), United Kingdom (89), Netherlands and Canada (80), and Italy (76).

• The high Individualism (IDV) ranking for the United States indicates a society with a more individualistic attitude and relatively loose bonds with others. The populace is more self-reliant and looks out for themselves and their close family members.

The next highest Hofstede Dimension is Masculinity (MAS) with a ranking of 62, compared with a world average of 50. This indicates the country experiences a higher degree of gender differentiation of roles. The male dominates a significant portion of the society and power structure.

Page 16: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• The United States was included in the group of countries that had the Long Term Orientation (LTO) Dimension added. The LTO is the lowest Dimension for the US at 29, compared to the world average of 45. This low LTO ranking is indicative of the societies' belief in meeting its obligations and tends to reflect an appreciation for cultural traditions.

• The next lowest ranking Dimension for the United States is Power Distance (PDI) at 40, compared to the world Average of 55. This is indicative of a greater equality between societal levels, including government, organizations, and even within families. This orientation reinforces a cooperative interaction across power levels and creates a more stable cultural environment.

• The last Geert Hofstede Dimension for the US is Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI), with a ranking of 46, compared to the world average of 64. A low ranking in the Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension is indicative of a society that has fewer rules and does not attempt to control all outcomes and results. It also has a greater level of tolerance for a variety of ideas, thoughts, and beliefs.

1 HE Titles

Page 17: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• India has Power Distance (PDI) as the highest Hofstede Dimension for the culture, with a ranking of 77 compared to a world average of 56.5. This Power Distance score for India indicates a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. This condition is not necessarily subverted upon the population, but rather accepted by the population as a cultural norm.

• India's Long Term Orientation (LTO) Dimension rank is 61, with the world average at 48. A higher LTO score can be indicative of a culture that is perseverant and parsimonious.

Page 18: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• India has Masculinity as the third highest ranking Hofstede Dimension at 56, with the world average just slightly lower at 51. The higher the country ranks in this Dimension, the greater the gap between values of men and women. It may also generate a more competitive and assertive female population, although still less than the male population.

• India's lowest ranking Dimension is Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) at 40, compared to the world average of 65. On the lower end of this ranking, the culture may be more open to unstructured ideas and situations. The population may have fewer rules and regulations with which to attempt control of every unknown and unexpected event or situation, as is the case in high Uncertainty Avoidance countries.

Page 19: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Hofstede’s Framework: An Assessment

• There are regional differences within countries• The original data is old and based on only one

company• Hofstede had to make many judgment calls while

doing the research• Some results don’t match what is believed to be true

about given countries• Despite these problems it remains a very popular


Page 20: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Always towards something or someone

Do not change without effort and willingness

‘Tendency’ (habit) suggests a default response to a given trigger

“…Reflect an individual’s persistent tendency to think, feel and behave towards an object in a particular way involving favor or disfavor.”

What are Attitudes?

Page 21: Chapter 3 Attitudes


AttitudeEvaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.

Three components of an attitude:The emotional or The emotional or feeling segment feeling segment of an attitude.of an attitude.e.g.: I don’t like e.g.: I don’t like my jobmy jobThe opinion or The opinion or

belief belief segment of an segment of an

attitude.attitude.e.g.: My job e.g.: My job

lacks lacks responsibilityresponsibility

An intention to behave in An intention to behave in a certain way toward a certain way toward someone or something.someone or something.e.g.: I’m going to quit my e.g.: I’m going to quit my job.job.

Page 22: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• Understand reasons for employee turnover, absenteeism, lateness, job search

• Improve job performance, increase voluntary helping behaviour

• Manage effectively Job Satisfaction and other psychological constructs

• Better manage employee job and role characteristics, and

• The importance of personal characteristics of the employee

Understanding Attitudes Can Help

Page 23: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Does Behavior Always Follow from Attitudes?

Leon Festinger – No, the reverse is sometimes true!In the late 1950s, he proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance, seeking to explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior. He argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance.

Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes

Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency

• .

Page 24: Chapter 3 Attitudes

– Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization

– Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:

• Importance of elements: If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low.

• Degree of individual influence: If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result, they are less likely to be receptive to attitude change.

• Rewards involved in dissonance: The inherent tension in high dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards.

Page 25: Chapter 3 Attitudes

What are the Major Job Attitudes?1. Job Satisfaction

A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics

2. Job InvolvementDegree of psychological identification with the job where

perceived performance is important to self-worth3. Psychological Empowerment

Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomyHigh level of Job involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to OCB and job performance. It has been also found to be related to fewer absences and lower turnover.

4. Organizational CommitmentIdentifying with a particular organization and its goals, willingness to help the organization achieve such goals and values, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.

Page 26: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Job .Satisfaction• .Jobs require interaction with co-workers and bosses,

following organizational rules and policies, meeting performance standards, living with working conditions that are often less than ideal, and the like. This means that an employee’s assessment of how satisfied or dissatisfied he or she is with his/her job is a complex summation of a number of discrete job elements.

One of the primary job attitudes measured.Broad term involving a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements.

Page 27: Chapter 3 Attitudes

How to measure? Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best

It is nothing more than asking individuals to respond to one question, such as “All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?”

Summation score (many questions/one average) – OKIt identifies key elements in a job and asks for the employee’s

feelings about each one ranked on a standardized scale. Typical factors that would be included are the nature of the

work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with co-workers.

Comparing these approaches, simplicity seems to work as well as complexity. Comparisons of one-question global ratings with the summation-of-job-factors method indicate both are valid.

Page 28: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Employee Responses to DissatisfactionActive



Page 29: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables—productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.

Voice and loyalty are constructive behaviors allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions. It helps us to understand situations, such as those sometimes found among unionized workers, where low job satisfaction is coupled with low turnover.

Page 30: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Job Performance

Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!

The causality may run both ways. Absenteeism

Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work. Turnover

Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.Many moderating variables in this relationship.

Economic environment and tenureOrganizational actions taken to retain high performers and

to weed out lower performers

Page 31: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the

organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.

Customer Satisfaction Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Workplace DevianceDissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances,

steal, be tardy, and withdraw.

Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or

overestimate worker satisfaction.

Page 32: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Job satisfaction andOrganisational Commitment

The two most researched Work Attitudes

Job satisfaction is an emotional state generated by evaluation or appraisal of one’s job experiences

–An employee who is satisfied with his/her job is said to derive happiness or pleasure from his/her job or experience at the job

–It is also a psychological state represented by thoughts and feelings as its indicators

Page 33: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Organisational commitment has been found to be a more direct measure of turnover intentions than satisfaction as it reflects the extent to which an employee shares the organisational values and goals, wanting to continue membership of the organisation and willing to work hard for it.

Organisational Commitment

Page 34: Chapter 3 Attitudes





Components of Commitment

Page 35: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• Describes employee’s integral attachment to the organisation

He/she identifies with it and has common goals and objectives, thinks and acts from organisation’s perspective and acts on behalf of it.


Employee identifies with the job, where work occupies central position in life.


Page 36: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Employee considers the cost associated with leaving the organisation. When these are too high, employee stays back. The costs are determined by interdependence between the organisation and the employee, the locational factors and so on.


Denotes extent to which employee’s values and beliefs lead him/her to feel that he/she should stay with the organisation.

Employee could feel so in wake of the investment that the organisation has made on behalf of him/her.


Page 37: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organisation

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

Page 38: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Encouraging Citizenship Behaviour– Dimensions of OCB: Sportsmanship, Organisational Loyalty, Individual

Initiative, Civic virtue and Self Development

Two work attitudes relevant to India: Karmayoga and Work Dedication

– Karmayoga means a tendency to discharge one’s duties without lusting for the outcomes

– Work Dedication is the disposition of the employee to voluntarily engage in affectively unpleasant, non-rewarding organisationally relevant behaviours. It is a more relevant concept in India.

Providing Organisational Context to Create Positive Work Attitudes

Page 39: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Yoga: A Key to appropriately balance diverse phenomena, often involvinginevitable and unavoidable contrasts and Karmayoga,

a proficiency in balancing blind chase and inaction

Karma YogaOvercoming inaction,

passivity and procrastination

Yoga as a fundamental approach towards balance

Overcoming desperate chase to achieve ends even if by employing inappropriate means

Choosing the suitable form of Yoga according to one’s temperament, walk of life and goals

Page 40: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• A sense of duty or obligation towards others arising out of one’s feeling connected to one’s surroundings coupled with striving to live a …life for the benefit of society

• Spontaneous action leading to absence of craving for material gratification

• Equanimity [between contrasting factors that represents appropriate balance without disregarding what is necessary and without overemphasis on anything]

Page 41: Chapter 3 Attitudes

This notion derives from another concept of duty: doing those tasks about which one has positive beliefs (good to do, should do) but negative affect (disliked). A design engineer stayed back in the after-hours for many days

after his resignation teaching his replacement all the required things. This was in spite of his dislike for his company who had shortchanged him.

some employees reported to work during a strike against unfair practices of their organisation, knowing that they faced negative consequences.

A customs officer did not allow machinery to be imported by vested interests against rules in spite of pressure from Members of Parliament.

Page 42: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Job Attitudes

Task Variables

Leadership Behaviour


Personality and motives

Satisfaction with job

Commitment to Organisation

Intrinsically satisfying Tasks

Supportive, Inspirational Leaders

Helping co-workers

Sportsmanship, individual interest subordinated to that of organisation

Loyalty to organisation

Compliance and courtesy

Initiative to exceed standards of work

Civic virtue


Organisational Effectiveness and performance through better interpersonal and group dynamics such as trust and cohesiveness.

Page 43: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• Sportsmanship

• Organisational Loyalty

• Individual initiative

• Civic Virtue

• Self Development

Page 44: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Describes employees' willingness to endure impositions and inconveniences on the job, to maintain a positive attitude even when things do not go their way, and to subordinate their personal interests for the benefit of the organisation

Describes employees' commitment to and promotion of the organisation (e.g., protecting and defending the organisation against outside threats). Organisational compliance describes individuals' willingness to accept and abide by the organisation's rules, regulations, and procedures

Page 45: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Describes employee conscientiousness, which exceeds required work standards (e.g., volunteering to take on an extra assignment or working late to finish a project)

Describes employees' active participation and involvement in company affairs (e.g., keeping up with organisational issues or attending non-mandatory meetings)

Page 46: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Describes voluntary behaviours undertaken by individuals in order to enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities (e.g., pursuing additional training or staying abreast of new developments in the field)

Page 47: Chapter 3 Attitudes

The Redesigning of Jobs

Page 48: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• Identifies employee attitudes regarding:

– Specific job characteristics needing enrichment

– The readiness of employees to respond positively to improved jobs

Page 49: Chapter 3 Attitudes

• Employees know how well are they performing on a task (Feedback: the knowledge of results)

• Employees feel accountable and responsible (experienced responsibility that matches autonomy)

• For an outcome which is meaningful (when employees know they perform work which is significant, is distinct and requires employment of wide range of skills)

Page 50: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Reinforcement: Anything that increases the frequency or intensity of a desired behaviour

Punishment : Aimed at mainly to stop or reduce the frequency of undesirable activities

Individual Incentive Systems– Usually in the form of money– They can strengthen goal commitment

Page 51: Chapter 3 Attitudes

Gain sharing or Group Incentive– When incentives are spread at group level, the best results are found

when employees participate in decision-making and later share group incentive

Goal Setting, Feedback and Bonus Pay Dispersion and Equity Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOPs)

– The employee-owners are more committed to the success of the enterprise because business success is transferred directly into personal wealth. Incentive Stock Options (ISOs) allow ownership of stock contingent upon meeting specific performance criteria